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Approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) are mathematical algorithms created to measure the repeatability or predictability within a time series. Both algorithms are extremely sensitive to their input parameters: m (length of the data segment being compared), r (similarity criterion), and N (length of data). There is no established consensus(More)
Gait variability in the context of a deterministic dynamical system may be quantified using nonlinear time series analyses that characterize the complexity of the system. Pathological gait exhibits altered gait variability. It can be either too periodic and predictable, or too random and disordered, as is the case with aging. While gait therapies often(More)
Humans exhibit an innate ability to synchronize their movements to music. The field of gait rehabilitation has sought to capitalize on this phenomenon by invoking patients to walk in time to rhythmic auditory cues with a view to improving pathological gait. However, the temporal structure of the auditory cue, and hence the temporal structure of the target(More)
Spatial variation in the recruitment of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus montagui and Chthamalus stellatus was examined over an European scale. The study was carried out using 0022-0981/$-see front matter D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. standardised protocols at a series of locations. The five locations chosen (SW Ireland, NW Spain, SW Portugal(More)
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