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Atmospheric blocking over the northern North Atlantic, which involves isolation of large regions of air from the westerly circulation for 5 days or more, influences fundamentally the ocean circulation and upper ocean properties by affecting wind patterns. Winters with clusters of more frequent blocking between Greenland and western Europe correspond to a(More)
Computation of the blocking days: Here we follow Tibaldi and Molteni (1990) to compute two geopotential height gradients (GHGN and GHGS) at 500hPa for each latitude and longitude grid point in the Greenland sector; 20W-60W, 50N-85N: GHGN = (Z(λ,φ N) – Z(λ,φ 0)) / (φ N – φ 0) <-10 (m/degrees of latitude) , GHGS = (Z(λ,φ 0) – Z(λ,φ S)) / (φ 0 – φ S) > 0, Z is(More)
Warming of the North Atlantic Ocean from the 1950s to 2012 is analyzed on neutral density surfaces and vertical levels in the upper 2000 m. Three reanalyses and two observational data sets are compared. The net gain of 5 × 10 22 J in the upper 2000 m is roughly 30% of the global ocean warming over this period. Upper ocean heat content (OHC) is dominated in(More)
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