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PURPOSE Although bullying is recognized as a serious problem in the United States, little is known about racial/ethnic differences in bullying risk. This study examined associations between bullying and family, peer, and school relations for white, black and Hispanic adolescents. METHODS A nationally representative sample (n = 11,033) of adolescents in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which bullying and being bullied, both in and away from school, is associated with involvement in violent behavior. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A US representative cross-sectional sample of 15 686 students in grades 6 through 10 in public and private schools completed the World Health Organization's Health(More)
The goal of this research was to develop and evaluate measures of adolescent diabetes management self-efficacy and outcome expectations that reflect developmentally relevant, situation-specific challenges to current diabetes regimens. Self-efficacy for diabetes management, expected outcomes of adherence, adherence to the diabetes regimen, and glycemic(More)
The purpose of this paper was to examine caregiver supervision and its role as an active strategy in childhood injury prevention. Through a review of the literature, the authors addressed conceptual and methodological issues related to supervision, such as the question of how to define 'adequate supervision.' Three critical dimensions (attention, proximity(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the association between swimming lessons and the risk of drowning among children aged 1 to 19 years. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Cases were identified from medical examiners'/coroners' offices between mid-2003 and mid-2005. Jurisdictions included the states of Maryland and North Carolina, 14 districts (33 counties) in(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to evaluate two updated measures of diabetes regimen adherence. The Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) is a widely used, structured interview. Limitations include a substantial interviewer and respondent time burden and the need for well-trained interviewers to use appropriate prompts and score the open-ended(More)
BACKGROUND Experimentation with smoking often begins during adolescence, but an adequate understanding of the factors associated with early initiation remains elusive. METHODS Sixth- to eighth-grade students (n = 4,263, 67.1% white, 23.5% black, 7.2% other) from seven middle schools were surveyed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of recent smoking (past(More)
Adolescent problem behavior, including substance use, school misconduct and delinquency, is a national concern. Implicit in the concept of middle school is the recognition that students who develop positive social bonds with their school are more likely to perform well academically, and refrain from misconduct and other antisocial behavior. However, little(More)
This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices(More)
Social influences can promote or discourage adolescent substance use. The authors surveyed 4,263 sixth- to eighth-grade students to assess the effect of peer and parent influences on adolescent substance use. The authors conducted separate multiple logistic regression analyses for smoking and drinking, controlling for grade, sex, and race. Positive(More)