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The identification of genes associated with hereditary disorders has contributed to improving medical care and to a better understanding of gene functions, interactions, and pathways. However, there are well over 1500 Mendelian disorders whose molecular basis remains unknown. At present, methods such as linkage analysis can identify the chromosomal region(More)
There are many thousands of hereditary diseases in humans, each of which has a specific combination of phenotypic features, but computational analysis of phenotypic data has been hampered by lack of adequate computational data structures. Therefore, we have developed a Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) with over 8000 terms representing individual phenotypic(More)
Warburg Micro syndrome (WARBM1) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities of the eye and central nervous system and by microgenitalia. We identified homozygous inactivating mutations in RAB3GAP, encoding RAB3 GTPase activating protein, a key regulator of the Rab3 pathway implicated in exocytic release of(More)
BACKGROUND The genetic cause of intellectual disability in most patients is unclear because of the absence of morphological clues, information about the position of such genes, and suitable screening methods. Our aim was to identify de-novo variants in individuals with sporadic non-syndromic intellectual disability. METHODS In this study, we enrolled(More)
Mammalian genomes are organized into megabase-scale topologically associated domains (TADs). We demonstrate that disruption of TADs can rewire long-range regulatory architecture and result in pathogenic phenotypes. We show that distinct human limb malformations are caused by deletions, inversions, or duplications altering the structure of the TAD-spanning(More)
The differential diagnostic process attempts to identify candidate diseases that best explain a set of clinical features. This process can be complicated by the fact that the features can have varying degrees of specificity, as well as by the presence of features unrelated to the disease itself. Depending on the experience of the physician and the(More)
Less than half of patients with suspected genetic disease receive a molecular diagnosis. We have therefore integrated next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics, and clinical data into an effective diagnostic workflow. We used variants in the 2741 established Mendelian disease genes [the disease-associated genome (DAG)] to develop a targeted(More)
We identified 266 individuals with intragenic NSD1 mutations or 5q35 microdeletions encompassing NSD1 (referred to as "NSD1-positive individuals"), through analyses of 530 subjects with diverse phenotypes. Truncating NSD1 mutations occurred throughout the gene, but pathogenic missense mutations occurred only in functional domains (P < 2 x 10(-16)). Sotos(More)
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct neurogenetic disorders caused by the loss of function of imprinted genes in 15q11–q13. The maternally expressed UBE3A gene is affected in AS. Four protein-encoding genes (MKRN3, MAGEL2, NDN and SNURF-SNRPN) and several small nucleolar (sno) RNA genes (HBII-13, HBII-436, HBII-85, HBII-438A,(More)
CASK is a multi-domain scaffolding protein that interacts with the transcription factor TBR1 and regulates expression of genes involved in cortical development such as RELN. Here we describe a previously unreported X-linked brain malformation syndrome caused by mutations of CASK. All five affected individuals with CASK mutations had congenital or postnatal(More)