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A major source of free radical production in the brain derives from copper. To prevent metal-mediated oxidative stress, cells have evolved complex metal transport systems. The Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a major regulator of neuronal copper homeostasis. APP knockout mice have elevated copper levels in the cerebral cortex, whereas(More)
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is complicated by pro-oxidant intraneuronal Fe(2+) elevation as well as extracellular Zn(2+) accumulation within amyloid plaque. We found that the AD β-amyloid protein precursor (APP) possesses ferroxidase activity mediated by a conserved H-ferritin-like active site, which is inhibited specifically by Zn(2+). Like ceruloplasmin, APP(More)
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer disease. A proteolytic-breakdown product of APP, called beta-amyloid, is a major component of the diffuse and fibrillar deposits found in Alzheimer diseased brains. The normal physiological role of APP remains largely unknown despite much work. A knowledge of its function will not only(More)
Two chloroquine-resistant cloned isolates of Plasmodium falciparum were subjected to mefloquine selection to test if this resulted in alterations in chloroquine sensitivity and amplification of the pfmdr1 gene. The mefloquine-resistant lines derived by this selection were shown to have amplified and overexpressed the pfmdr1 gene and its protein product(More)
Cycloguanil, the active metabolite of the antimalarial drug proguanil, is an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase as is another antimalarial, pyrimethamine. Its use has been limited by the rapid development of resistance by parasites around the world. We have determined the cycloguanil- and pyrimethamine-sensitivity status of 10 isolates of Plasmodium(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia. Amyloid beta peptide (Abeta), generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is central to AD pathogenesis. APP can function as a metalloprotein and modulate copper (Cu) transport, presumably via its extracellular Cu-binding domain (CuBD). Cu binding to the CuBD reduces(More)
Studies on the amyloid precursor protein (APP) have suggested that it may be neuroprotective against amyloid-beta (Abeta) toxicity and oxidative stress. However, these findings have been obtained from either transfection of cell lines and mice that overexpress human APP isoforms or pretreatment of APP-expressing primary neurons with exogenous soluble APP.(More)
Resistance to chloroquine in Plasmodium falciparum bears a striking similarity to the multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype of mammalian tumor cells which is mediated by overexpression of P-glycoprotein. We show here that the P. falciparum homologue of the P-glycoprotein (Pgh1) is a 160,000-D protein that is expressed throughout the asexual erythrocytic(More)
A chloroquine resistant cloned isolate of Plasmodium falciparum, FAC8, which carries an amplification in the pfmdr1 gene was selected for high-level chloroquine resistance, resulting in a cell line resistant to a 10-fold higher concentration of chloroquine. These cells were found to have lost the amplification in pfmdr1 and to no longer over-produce the(More)
Amplification and overexpression of the pfmdr1 gene has been associated with mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. We have selected for parasites more resistant to mefloquine from P. falciparum FAC8, a clone that has three copies of pfmdr1. The parasite lines derived from this selection were up to threefold more resistant to mefloquine. The(More)