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BACKGROUND Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the founding member of a novel family of inflammatory cytokines that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). IL-17A signals through its receptor, IL-17RA, which is expressed in many(More)
GM-CSF is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a pathogenic role in the CNS inflammatory disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. As IL-27 alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we hypothesized that IL-27 suppresses GM-CSF expression by T cells. We found that IL-27 suppressed GM-CSF expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in(More)
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) derived from the subventricular zone of the brain show therapeutic effects in EAE, an animal model of the chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease MS; however, the beneficial effects are modest. One critical weakness of aNSC therapy may be an insufficient antiinflammatory effect. Here, we demonstrate that i.v. or i.c.v.(More)
BACKGROUND Neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), correlates with permanent neurological dysfunction. Current MS therapies have limited the ability to prevent neuronal damage. METHODS We examined whether oral therapy with SRT501, a pharmaceutical grade formulation of resveratrol,(More)
IL-27 has been shown to play a suppressive role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as demonstrated by more severe disease in IL-27R-deficient (WSX-1(-/-)) mice. However, whether IL-27 influences the induction or effector phase of EAE is unknown. This is an important question as therapies for autoimmune diseases are generally started after(More)
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are important regulators of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokine responses but their role in macrophage polarization is unknown. We have shown here that myeloid-restricted Socs3 deletion (Socs3(Lyz2cre)) resulted in resistance to LPS-induced endotoxic shock, whereas Socs2(-/-) mice were highly susceptible. We(More)
IL-27 counters the effect of TGF-beta+IL-6 on naive CD4(+) T cells, resulting in near complete inhibition of de novo Th17 development. In contrast, little is known about the effect of IL-27 on already differentiated Th17 cells. A better understanding of how IL-27 regulates these cells is needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of IL-27 in Th17(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-characterised model of autoimmune inflammatory demyelination. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise microbial components and initiate innate immune responses. We report in this study that TLR7 stimulation by imiquimod, a synthetic analog of ssRNA, suppresses disease severity in a chronic EAE model.(More)
The incidence of allergy and asthma in developed countries is on the increase and this trend looks likely to continue. CD4(+) T helper 2 (Th2) cells are major drivers of these diseases and their commitment is controlled by cytokines such as interleukin 4, which are in turn regulated by the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. We report that(More)
The central role of T cells in the induction of immunological tolerance against i.v. Ags has been well documented. However, the role of dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent APCs, in this process is not clear. In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining the involvement of two different DC subsets, CD11c(+)CD11b(+) and CD11c(+)CD8(+) DCs, in(More)