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BACKGROUND Finding the most appropriate strategy for the prevention of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in young children is essential in countries like Niger with annual "hunger gaps." Options for large-scale prevention include distribution of supplementary foods, such as fortified-blended foods or lipid-based nutrient(More)
This study investigates population mobility and its relationship with area level deprivation and health. Based on UK movement in the year preceding the 2001 census, small areas in Scotland were classified as being one of the following population types; decreasing, increasing or stable (with high or low turnover). In the most deprived areas, illness rates(More)
OBJECTIVE Assessment of disease activity in vasculitis can be achieved using the BVAS, a clinical checklist of relevant symptoms, signs and features of active disease. The aim of this study was to revalidate the BVAS version 3 (BVAS v. 3) in a cohort of patients with systemic vasculitis. METHODS A total of 238 patients with vasculitis from seven countries(More)
Survival data are often modelled by the Cox proportional hazards model, which assumes that covariate effects are constant over time. In recent years however, several new approaches have been suggested which allow covariate effects to vary with time. Non-proportional hazard functions, with covariate effects changing dynamically, can be fitted using penalised(More)
Material deprivation contributes to inequalities in health; areas of high deprivation have higher rates of ill-health. How deprivation is measured has a great impact on its explanatory power with respect to health. We compare previous deprivation measures used in Scotland and proposes a new deprivation measure using the 2001 and 2011 Scottish census data.(More)
Despite recent increases in life expectancy, inequalities in mortality in Scotland have been widening. Previous research has suggested that one of the potential drivers of geographical inequalities in health is the process of selective migration. Although support for the effect of selective migration on widening geographic inequalities in health has been(More)
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) affects ~1 of 150 births and is a leading cause of hearing loss and intellectual disability. It has been suggested that transmission may occur via contaminated surfaces. CMV AD169 in filtered human saliva, applied to environmental surfaces, was recovered at various time points. Samples were evaluated by culture and real-time(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was found to induce the release of ascorbic acid from rat striatal homogenates and minces. This release was studied with the use of a rapid superfusion system with an on-line amperometric detector that monitors for the presence of easily oxidized substances (i.e., ascorbate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine). The release was(More)