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OBJECTIVE The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the quality of nutritional counseling that the chiropractic patient receives, for what conditions, and the need to establish easy-to-use protocols for nutritional counseling. METHODS Chiropractors practicing in the state of New York were surveyed and were asked if they valued the use of nutritional(More)
Using human data to extrapolate cancer risks at ambient levels of airborne pollutants avoids the uncertainty due to interspecies differences, but introduces other uncertainties. The unusually extensive data relating lung cancer to occupational inhalation of arsenic provide examples of 3 uncertainties: the extrapolation from partial to full lifetime risks,(More)
Previous studies have shown that the vomeronasal and, possibly, olfactory systems are functional in newborn garter snakes. However, little is known about neurogenesis in these chemosensory pathways. In the companion paper, we describe the embryonic growth of the sensory epithelia for both the vomeronasal and olfactory systems. In the present study, we(More)
The development of the nasal chemical senses of reptiles is of particular interest since evidence suggests that neonatal reptiles use both their olfactory and vomeronasal systems. This review focuses on the embryonic development of these nasal chemosensory systems in garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.). Three approaches have been used to examine development:(More)
Previous studies have shown that the vomeronasal and olfactory epithelia of adult vertebrates provide good models for studying normal neuronal turnover and regeneration in response to axotomy. However, little is known about the cell dynamics in the embryonic vomeronasal and olfactory epithelia or the origins of different cell types in these structures. By(More)
Newborn, unfed garter snakes (Thamnophis spp.) respond preferentially to aqueous extracts of natural prey items, and these responses are mediated by the vomeronasal system (VNS). Since the VNS, and possibly the olfactory system (OS), are functional at birth, we examined the ontogeny of VNS and OS structures in four embryonic stages and two postnatal ages in(More)
This review will discuss changes observed in the cell dynamics of the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) of snakes during embryonic and postnatal growth. Recent work suggests that neuronal differentiation occurs early in VNE development. We have used an antibody to an evolutionarily conserved peptide sequence (the PSTAIRE region) in a family of cell cycle(More)
The expression of preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA has previously been shown to be regulated by steroid hormones in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) and to be regulated by noxious stimuli in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (DH). The present in situ hybridization study in ovariectomized rats showed that PPE mRNA expression in both the VMH and(More)
Developmental studies examining the changes in oxidative metabolic activity are useful for understanding how and if the vomeronasal and olfactory systems respond to stimulation during embryogenesis. Garter snakes are good candidates for examining the potential functionality of the vomeronasal system in utero. In adult garter snakes, the vomeronasal system(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this prospective case series was to collect preliminary data as to the effectiveness of a specific chiropractic technique, drop table method, in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. METHODS Over a 4-week period, 16 females were screened for symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea and motion restrictions of the lumbosacral spine.(More)