Denis Richard

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The gene Ucp2 is a member of a family of genes found in animals and plants, encoding a protein homologous to the brown fat uncoupling protein Ucp1 (refs 1-3). As Ucp2 is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, uncouples respiration and resides within a region of genetic linkage to obesity, a role in energy dissipation has been proposed. We demonstrate here,(More)
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is vital for proper thermogenesis during cold exposure in rodents, but until recently its presence in adult humans and its contribution to human metabolism were thought to be minimal or insignificant. Recent studies using PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) have shown the presence of BAT in adult humans. However, whether BAT(More)
Mammals have evolved sophisticated behavioral and physiological responses to oppose changes in the osmolality of their extracellular fluid. The behavioral approach consists of regulating the intake of salt and water through changes in sodium appetite and thirst. The physiological approach comprises adjustments of renal excretion of water and sodium which(More)
In Computer Science, n-tuples and lists are usual tools ; we investigate both notions in the framework of first-order logic within the set of nonnegative integers. Gödel had firstly shown that the objects which can be defined by primitive recursion schema, also can be defined at first-order, using natural order and some coding devices for lists. Secondly he(More)
CONTEXT In humans, the prevalence, mass, and glucose-uptake activity of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-detected brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are expectedly enhanced by a cold stimulus, also appear modulated by other factors that still have to be disentangled. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate the factors determining the(More)
The most common pathology associated with obesity is insulin resistance, which results in the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies have implicated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in obesity. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding (eIF4E-binding) proteins (4E-BPs), which repress translation by binding to(More)
The estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan member of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors expressed in tissues that preferentially metabolize fatty acids. Despite the molecular characterization of ERRalpha and identification of target genes, determination of its physiological function has been hampered by the lack of a natural(More)
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system could play a significant role in the regulation of energy balance. This system, which includes CRF, CRF-related peptides and CRF receptors, is part of a huge network of cells connected to central and peripheral pathways modulating energy metabolism. CRF and CRF-related peptides, which elicit their effects(More)
1. The effects of osmotic or electrical stimulation of the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) were examined during intracellular recordings (32 degrees C) obtained from ninety-five supraoptic nucleus magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in superfused explants of rat hypothalamus. 2. Brief (10-20 s) applications of hypertonic and hypotonic(More)
Résumé The binary Cantor pairing function C from N × N into N is defined by C(x, y) = (1/2) (x + y)(x + y + 1) + y. We consider the theory of natural integers equipped with the Cantor pairing function and an extra relation or function X on N. When X is equal either to multiplication, or coprimeness, or divisibility, or addition or natural ordering, it can(More)