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The aim of this work was to study the influence upon differentiation of muscle fiber types of the multiple innervation induced in a fast muscle by chronic spinal cord stimulation. In previous work, we showed that low-frequency stimulation applied to the spinal cord of the chick embryo caused a distributed innervation of muscle fibers in the posterior(More)
Slow-tonic anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle properties were studied following chronic spinal cord stimulation in chick embryo. Stimulation at a fast rhythm was applied from day 7, 8 or 10 of development until the end of embryonic life. When stimulation was applied from day 7 up to day 18 of development, ALD muscle exhibited at day 18 a large decrease(More)
The levels of the neural axis from which parasympathetic and orthosympathetic neurons and adrenomedullary cells are derived under normal developmental conditions were determined in avian embryos by a biological labeling technique. The technique is based on nuclear differences between two species of birds, the chick and the quail. In quail interphase nuclei(More)
Heterotopic transplantations of fragments of neural tube have been performed in the chick embryo on stage 22 somites. Brachial motor centres were replaced by a posterior segment of spinal cord. As a result, synpatic patterns of Posterior Latissimus Dorsi (PLD) and Anterior Latissimus Dorsi (ALD) were modified : PLD exhibited numerous muscle fibers with a(More)
We are interested in improving the quality of frequency assignment via a more accurate modeling of the traffic over the network. For this purpose, we propose here an original model for FAP, which takes into account both spatial and temporal variation of the traffic. The proposed model is assessed with a hybrid genetic algorithm and compared against a(More)
—A 14-MHz in-plane nanoelectromechanical resonator based on a resonant-suspended-gate (RSG) MOSFET principle and integrated in a front-end process is demonstrated. The devices are in-plane flexural vibration mode beams (L = 10 µm, w = 165 nm, and h = 400 nm) with 120-nm gaps. This letter details the design and process flow fabrication steps. Then, the(More)
The very significant growth of the wireless communication industry has spawned tremendous interest in the development of high performances radio frequencies (RF) components. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are good candidates to allow reconfigurable RF functions such as filters, oscillators or antennas. This paper will focus on the MEMS(More)
The paper reports on in-plane nanometer scale resonators fabricated on 8 inch industrial tools, with a process based on the advanced CMOS Front End Silicon On Nothing Technology. The aim is to propose totally integrated time reference functions realized by small size NEMS resonators. The measurement setup , simulation and experimental results in the range(More)