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Very low (nano- and subnanomolar) concentrations of 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) were found to prolong lifespan of a fungus (Podospora anserina), a crustacean (Ceriodaphnia affinis), an insect (Drosophila melanogaster), and a mammal (mouse). In the latter case, median lifespan is doubled if animals live in a non-sterile vivarium.(More)
Mitochondria-targeted cationic plastoquinone derivative SkQ1 (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium) has been investigated as a potential tool for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases. In OXYS rats suffering from a ROS-induced progeria, very small amounts of SkQ1 (50 nmol/kg per day) added to food were found to prevent development of(More)
The pigment epithelium cell structure and therapeutic effect of antioxidant SkQ1, selectively penetrating into mitochondria from eye drops, were studied upon development in OXYS rats of age-related retinopathy as a model of macular degeneration. The characteristic dynamics and ultrastructural peculiarities of the layer of electron-dense cytoplasmic(More)
A sharp interface model of crack propagation as a phase transition process is discussed. We develop a multipole expansion technique to solve this free boundary problem numerically. We obtain steady state solutions with a self-consistently selected propagation velocity and shape of the crack, provided that elastodynamic effects are taken into account. Also,(More)
A continuum model of crack propagation in brittle viscoelastic materials is presented and discussed. Thereby, the phenomenon of fracture is understood as an elastically induced nonequilibrium interfacial pattern formation process. In this spirit, a full description of a propagating crack provides the determination of the entire time dependent shape of the(More)
We discuss steady state crack growth in the spirit of a free boundary problem. It turns out that mode I and mode III situations are very different from each other: In particular, mode III exhibits a pronounced transition towards unstable crack growth at higher driving forces, and the behavior close to the Griffith point is determined entirely through crack(More)
We compare different scenarios for dendritic melting of alloys with respect to the front propagation velocity. In contrast to conventional dendritic growth, selection can here be also due to the presence of a grain boundary or coherence strains, and the propagation speed is higher. The most favorable situation is partial melting, where two parabolic fronts,(More)
Melting of a bicrystal along the grain boundary is discussed. A triple junction plays a crucial role in the velocity selection problem in this case. In some range of the parameters an entirely analytical solution of this problem is given. This allows us to present a transparent picture of the structure of the selection theory. We also discuss the selection(More)
The phase field method is a very powerful numerical method to solve moving boundary problems. Here we demonstrate how it can be applied to various processes involving sound propagation and fracture. This approach is related to a new theory of fracture which describes in particular the fast growth of cracks. We study the propagation of elastic waves, the(More)