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This paper addresses the problem of routing and wavelength assignment of bit-rate-differentiated optical services in a hybrid network. Hybrid optical networks are composed of resources, such as ®ber links and photonic/electronic switches, that vary in their capabilities and transmission qualities. These networks are also responsible for the realization of(More)
—The time-space varying birefringence in single-mode optical fibers causes the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to be a serious problem in high bit-rate transmissions. The PMD first-and second-order statistics are well known in the literature, but second-order PMD-induced pulse distortions have still to be clarified for sequences of pulses of arbitrary(More)
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