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Carbon exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is one of the key processes that need to be assessed in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. Several studies suggest that the terrestrial biosphere is gaining carbon, but these estimates are obtained primarily by indirect methods, and the factors that control terrestrial carbon exchange, its(More)
Future climate warming is expected to enhance plant growth in temperate ecosystems and to increase carbon sequestration. But although severe regional heatwaves may become more frequent in a changing climate, their impact on terrestrial carbon cycling is unclear. Here we report measurements of ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes, remotely sensed radiation(More)
• Photosynthetic carbon (C) isotope discrimination (Δ(Α)) labels photosynthates (δ(A) ) and atmospheric CO(2) (δ(a)) with variable C isotope compositions during fluctuating environmental conditions. In this context, the C isotope composition of respired CO(2) within ecosystems is often hypothesized to vary temporally with Δ(Α). • We investigated the(More)
Temperate and boreal forests in the Northern Hemisphere cover an area of about 2 x 10(7) square kilometres and act as a substantial carbon sink (0.6-0.7 petagrams of carbon per year). Although forest expansion following agricultural abandonment is certainly responsible for an important fraction of this carbon sink activity, the additional effects on the(More)
Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, in the form of both biomass and soil organic matter. Increasing atmospheric [CO2], increasing temperature, elevated nitrogen deposition and intensified management will change this C store. Well documented single-factor responses of net primary production are: higher(More)
An overview is presented of the phenological models relevant for boreal coniferous, temperate-zone deciduous and Mediterranean coniferous forest ecosystems. The phenology of the boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, affecting the timing of the start of the growing season and thereby its duration, and the level of frost hardiness and thereby the(More)
The transpiration, sap flow, stomatal conductance and water relations ofPinus pinaster were determined during spring and summer in a 64-year-old stand in Ribatejo (Portugal). The transpiration of the pine canopy was determined from sap flow or eddy covariance techniques. Canopy conductance values (g c) were estimated from inversion methods using eddy(More)
We modeled the effects of climate change and two forest management scenarios on wood production and forest carbon balance in French forests using process-based models of forest growth. We combined data from the national forest inventory and soil network survey, which were aggregated over a 50 x 50-km grid, i.e., the spatial resolution of the climate(More)
Phloem is the main pathway for transferring photosynthates belowground. In situ(13) C pulse labelling of trees 8-10 m tall was conducted in the field on 10 beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees, six sessile oak (Quercus petraea) trees and 10 maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) trees throughout the growing season. Respired (13) CO2 from trunks was tracked at different(More)
Effects of fertilization and irrigation on fine roots and fungal hyphae were studied in 13-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aït. in Soland), 7 years after the initiation of the treatments. The fertilization trials consisted of a phosphorus treatment, a complete fertilizer treatment (N, P, K, Ca and Mg), and an unfertilized treatment (control).(More)