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OBJECTIVES This study determined the characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community, and methodology was designed for the multidisciplinary study of fetal alcohol syndrome in developing societies. METHODS An active case ascertainment, 2-tier methodology was used among 992 first-grade pupils. A case-control design, using measures of(More)
OBJECTIVES The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) were determined in a third primary school cohort in a community in South Africa (SA). METHODS An active case ascertainment, two-tier screening methodology, and the revised Institute of Medicine diagnostic criteria were employed among 818(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a second primary school cohort in a community in South Africa. METHOD Active case ascertainment, two-tier screening, and Institute of Medicine assessment methodology were employed among 857 first grade pupils, most born in 1993.(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess alcohol use by pregnant women in three underprivileged areas of the Western Cape. DESIGN Data were collected from subjects, selected in a randomised manner, during a single, structured interview. SUBJECTS AND SETTING Interviews were conducted among pregnant women voluntarily attending selected antenatal clinics in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS among schoolgoing children in Grade 1 in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. DESIGN A cross-sectional study using a two-tiered method for ascertainment of FAS/partial FAS cases, comprising: screening of growth parameters, diagnostic(More)
OBJECTIVES We defined risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a region with the highest documented prevalence of FAS in the world. METHODS We compared mothers of 53 first-grade students with FAS (cases) with 116 randomly selected mothers of first-grade students without FAS (controls). RESULTS Differences between case and control mothers in our(More)
Data were obtained from three samples of women of childbearing age. One sample of women is from prenatal clinics serving Plains Indian women. The second sample is of women from the Plains whose children were referred to special diagnostic developmental clinics, as their children were believed to have developmental issues consistent with prenatal alcohol(More)
Victims of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) exhibit a unique facial phenotype that is emphasised in diagnosis. Among the characteristic facial features, several occurring in the region of the orbits can be evaluated quantitatively using distance measurements. An algorithm is described for automatic extraction and measurement of eye features from stereo(More)
BACKGROUND Even though fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) has been reported in nonwestern nations, there is a paucity of information on neurodevelopment in the affected children from those nations. This article reports on a study of cognitive-motor development in a group of children with FAS from a community in the Western Cape Province in South Africa. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is particularly common among the mixed-ancestry population of the Western Cape Province of South Africa and occurs at a frequency of 0.0392-0.0429 (39.2-42.9 of 1000) among 5- to 9-year-old school entrants. While FAS is clearly caused by an environmental insult, studies in twins and mice support a significant genetic(More)