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Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a(More)
Drought can alter plant quality and the strength of trophic interactions between herbivore groups, and is likely to increase in occurrence and severity under climate change. We hypothesized that changes in plant chemistry due to root herbivory and drought stress would affect the performance of a generalist and a specialist aphid species feeding on a(More)
We examined the role of microorganisms in the degradation of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in soils from the United Kingdom and Australia. The kinetics of degradation in five United Kingdom soils varying in pH from 4.7 to 8.4 suggested that dissipation of chlorpyrifos was mediated by the cometabolic activities of the soil microorganisms.(More)
INTRODUCTION We propose an active pathogenic mechanism, involving circulating cortisol, in parkinsonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Serum cortisol was measured in 96 subjects with idiopathic parkinsonism, 170 without, and in 17 spouses and 36 siblings of elderly sufferers with double the number of controls, all obeying inclusion/exclusion criteria. RESULTS(More)
Evaluating cerebral oxygenation is of critical importance for the understanding of brain function and several neuropathologies. Although several techniques exist for measuring cerebral oxygenation in vivo, the most widely accepted techniques offer limited spatial resolution. We have developed a confocal imaging system for minimally invasive measurement of(More)
Recombinant sucrose-6-phosphate synthase (SpsA) was synthesized in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 by using the spsA gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Transformants exhibited a 10,000-fold increase in survival compared to wild-type cells following either freeze-drying, air drying, or desiccation over phosphorus pentoxide. The phase(More)
The pectoralis muscle of birds provides virtually all the power for the downstroke of the wing during flight. In adults it consists almost entirely of FOG (fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic) and/or FG (fast-twitch glycolytic) fiber types. The aims of this study are to contrast MyHC (myosin heavy chain) transitions occurring within avian FG and FOG fibers(More)
Understanding the factors influencing host-selection behavior of parasitoids is essential in studies on host-parasitoid ecology and evolution, and in combining sustainable strategies of pest management, such as host-plant resistance and biological control. The effects of host-plant resistance on the olfactory response and parasitism success by Cotesia(More)
To understand the frequency, and thus the formation and evolution, of planetary systems like our own solar system, it is critical to detect Jupiter-like planets in Jupiter-like orbits. For long-term radial-velocity monitoring, it is useful to estimate the observational effort required to reliably detect such objects, particularly in light of severe(More)