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Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a(More)
Six chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria were isolated from an Australian soil and compared by biochemical and molecular methods. The isolates were indistinguishable, and one (strain B-14) was selected for further analysis. This strain showed greatest similarity to members of the order Enterobacteriales and was closest to members of the Enterobacter asburiae(More)
We examined the role of microorganisms in the degradation of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in soils from the United Kingdom and Australia. The kinetics of degradation in five United Kingdom soils varying in pH from 4.7 to 8.4 suggested that dissipation of chlorpyrifos was mediated by the cometabolic activities of the soil microorganisms.(More)
Drought can alter plant quality and the strength of trophic interactions between herbivore groups, and is likely to increase in occurrence and severity under climate change. We hypothesized that changes in plant chemistry due to root herbivory and drought stress would affect the performance of a generalist and a specialist aphid species feeding on a(More)
Plants produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to herbivore attack, and these VOCs can be used by parasitoids of the herbivore as host location cues. We investigated the behavioural responses of the parasitoid Cotesia vestalis to VOCs from a plant-herbivore complex consisting of cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) and the parasitoids host(More)
Recombinant sucrose-6-phosphate synthase (SpsA) was synthesized in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 by using the spsA gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Transformants exhibited a 10,000-fold increase in survival compared to wild-type cells following either freeze-drying, air drying, or desiccation over phosphorus pentoxide. The phase(More)
Indirect competition is often mediated by plant responses to herbivore feeding damage and is common among phytophagous insect species. Plant-mediated responses may be altered by abiotic conditions such as nutrient supply, which can affect plant growth, morphology, and the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites. Nutrient supply can be manipulated(More)
The long-term usefulness of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins, either in sprays or in transgenic crops, may be compromised by the evolution of resistance in target insects. Managing the evolution of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins requires extensive knowledge about the mechanisms, genetics, and ecology of resistance genes. To date, laboratory-selected(More)
So far, the only insect that has evolved resistance in the field to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins is the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). Documentation and analysis of resistant strains rely on comparisons with laboratory strains that have not been exposed to B. thuringiensis toxins. Previously published reports show considerable variation among(More)
Understanding the factors influencing host-selection behavior of parasitoids is essential in studies on host-parasitoid ecology and evolution, and in combining sustainable strategies of pest management, such as host-plant resistance and biological control. The effects of host-plant resistance on the olfactory response and parasitism success by Cotesia(More)