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A statistical sea surface specular BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) model is developed that includes mutual shadowing by waves, wave facet hiding, and projection weighting. The integral form of the model is reduced to an analytical form by making minor and justifiable approximations. The new form of the BRDF thus allows one to compute(More)
In a previous work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24, 753 (2007)], we developed a theory describing the space-time statistics of the scintillation and displacement fields of the turbulent point-spread function (PSF), which we validated using imaging data. We now expand on that work by deriving the theoretical expression for the spread fields of the PSF. We also show(More)
Radiometric images taken in mid-wave and long-wave infrared bands are used as a basis for validating a sea surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) being implemented into MODTRAN 5 (Berk et al. [Proc. SPIE5806, 662 (2005)]). The images were obtained during the MIRAMER campaign that took place in May 2008 in the Mediterranean Sea near(More)
We consider the point-spread function (PSF) of an imaging system looking through weak optical turbulence along a horizontal path through the atmospheric surface layer. From this PSF we derive a scalar total irradiance field and a center-of-mass vector field. Theoretical values are found for the space-time autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions for(More)
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