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On December 13th and 14th a group of scientists and clinicians met in Washington, DC, for the cachexia consensus conference. At the present time, there is no widely agreed upon operational definition of cachexia. The lack of a definition accepted by clinician and researchers has limited identification and treatment of cachectic patient as well as the(More)
Neuroinflammation is one of the most striking hallmarks of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), a master regulator of inflammation, is upregulated in spinal cords of ALS patients and SOD1-G93A mice. In this study, we show that selective NF-κB inhibition in ALS astrocytes is not sufficient to rescue motor neuron (MN) death.(More)
MyoD regulates skeletal muscle differentiation (SMD) and is essential for repair of damaged tissue. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is activated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a mediator of skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia. Here, the role of NF-kappaB in cytokine-induced muscle degeneration was explored. In(More)
Wnt signaling plays a critical role in development and oncogenesis. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the downstream signaling cascade of Wnt signaling, little is known regarding Wnt signaling modification of the cell death machinery. Given that numerous oncogenes transform cells by providing cell survival function, we(More)
Recent evidence indicates that the transcription factor NF-kappaB is a major effector of inducible antiapoptotic mechanisms. For example, it was shown that NF-kappaB activation suppresses the activation of caspase 8, the apical caspase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family signaling cascades, through the transcriptional regulation of certain TRAF(More)
Aberrant activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is associated with numerous human cancers and often correlates with the overexpression or amplification of the c-myc oncogene. Paradoxical to the cellular transformation potential of c-Myc is its ability to also induce apoptosis. Using an inducible c-MycER expression system, we found that(More)
BACKGROUND Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response.(More)
Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old(More)
OBJECTIVE Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with D4Z4 repeat contraction on human chromosome 4q35. This genetic lesion does not result in complete loss or mutation of any gene. Consequently, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying FSHD have been difficult to discern. In leading FSHD pathogenesis models, D4Z4 contractions are proposed(More)
Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is involved in multiple skeletal muscle disorders, but how it functions in differentiation remains elusive given that both anti- and promyogenic activities have been described. In this study, we resolve this by showing that myogenesis is controlled by opposing NF-kappaB signaling pathways. We find that myogenesis is(More)