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Members of the transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta) superfamily--namely, TGF-beta and BMP2--applied to undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells up-regulated mRNA of mesodermal (Brachyury) and cardiac specific transcription factors (Nkx2.5, MEF2C). Embryoid bodies generated from stem cells primed with these growth factors demonstrated an increased(More)
One half million patients suffer from colorectal cancer in industrialized nations, yet this disease exhibits a low incidence in under-developed countries. This geographic imbalance suggests an environmental contribution to the resistance of endemic populations to intestinal neoplasia. A common epidemiological characteristic of these colon cancer-spared(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are bifunctional multimers assembled by an ion conductor and a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) ATPase. Sensitive to ATP/ADP, K(ATP) channels are vital metabolic sensors. However, channel regulation by competitive ATP/ADP binding would require oscillations in intracellular nucleotides incompatible with cell survival. We(More)
Stress tolerance of the heart requires high-fidelity metabolic sensing by ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels that adjust membrane potential-dependent functions to match cellular energetic demand. Scanning of genomic DNA from individuals with heart failure and rhythm disturbances due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy identified two mutations in(More)
Although ischemic preconditioning induces bioenergetic tolerance and thereby remodels energy metabolism that is crucial for postischemic recovery of the heart, the molecular components associated with preservation of cellular energy production, transfer, and utilization are not fully understood. Here myocardial bioenergetic dynamics were assessed by(More)
Transmission of energetic signals to membrane sensors, such as the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel, is vital for cellular adaptation to stress. Yet, cell compartmentation implies diffusional hindrances that hamper direct reception of cytosolic energetic signals. With high intracellular ATP levels, KATP channels may sense not bulk cytosolic, but rather local(More)
Sepsis, the systemic inflammatory response to infection, imposes a high demand for bodily adaptation, with the cardiovascular response a key determinant of outcome. The homeostatic elements that secure cardiac tolerance in the setting of the sepsis syndrome are poorly understood. Here, in a model of acute septic shock induced by endotoxin challenge with(More)
Embryonic stem cells have the distinct potential for tissue regeneration, including cardiac repair. Their propensity for multilineage differentiation carries, however, the liability of neoplastic growth, impeding therapeutic application. Here, the tumorigenic threat associated with embryonic stem cell transplantation was suppressed by cardiac-restricted(More)
Conventional therapies for myocardial infarction attenuate disease progression without contributing significantly to repair. Because of the capacity for de novo cardiogenesis, embryonic stem cells are considered a potential source for myocardial regeneration, yet limited information is available on their ultimate therapeutic value. We treated infarcted rat(More)
Transduction of energetic signals into membrane electrical events governs vital cellular functions, ranging from hormone secretion and cytoprotection to appetite control and hair growth. Central to the regulation of such diverse cellular processes are the metabolism sensing ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels. However, the mechanism that communicates(More)