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The mammalian brain exhibits diverse types of neural plasticity, including activity-dependent neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. How transient activation of mature neurons leads to long-lasting modulation of adult neurogenesis is unknown. Here we identify Gadd45b as a neural activity-induced immediate early gene in mature hippocampal neurons. Mice with(More)
DNA methylation has been traditionally viewed as a highly stable epigenetic mark in postmitotic cells. However, postnatal brains appear to show stimulus-induced methylation changes, at least in a few identified CpG dinucleotides. How extensively the neuronal DNA methylome is regulated by neuronal activity is unknown. Using a next-generation sequencing-based(More)
Neural stem cells continually generate new neurons in very limited regions of the adult mammalian central nervous system. In the neurogenic regions there are unique and highly specialized microenvironments (niches) that tightly regulate the neuronal development of adult neural stem cells. Emerging evidence suggests that glia, particularly astrocytes, have(More)
Epigenetic mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during embryonic development and also serve as important interfaces between genes and the environment in adulthood. Neurogenesis in adults, which generates functional neural cell types from adult neural stem cells, is dynamically regulated by both intrinsic state-specific cell differentiation cues and(More)
DNA cytosine methylation represents an intrinsic modification signal of the genome that plays important roles in heritable gene silencing, heterochromatin formation and certain transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. In contrast to the process of DNA methylation that is catalyzed by specific classes of methyltransferases, molecular players underlying(More)
Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in discrete regions of the adult mammalian brain. Little is known about the mechanism governing the sequential developmental process that leads to integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells into the existing circuitry. Here, we investigated roles of Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a schizophrenia(More)
The adult mammalian brain continuously generates new neurons in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus throughout life. Adult neurogenesis, a highly dynamic process, has been shown to be exquisitely modulated by neuronal circuit activity at different stages, from proliferation of adult neural progenitors, to differentiation, maturation, integration, and(More)
Neural stem cells are present throughout life and continuously give rise to new neurons and glia cells in the mammalian central nervous system. Accumulating evidence suggests essential roles of micro-environments, or niches, in supporting active neurogenesis from endogenous neural stem cells within restricted regions of the adult brain. These neurogenic(More)
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present not only during the embryonic development but also in the adult brain of all mammalian species, including humans. Stem cell niche architecture in vivo enables adult NSCs to continuously generate functional neurons in specific brain regions throughout life. The adult neurogenesis process is subject to dynamic regulation(More)
Somatic nuclei can be reprogrammed to pluripotency through fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The underlying mechanism is largely unknown, primarily because of a lack of effective approaches to monitor and quantitatively analyze transient, early reprogramming events. The transcription factor Oct4 is expressed specifically in pluripotent stem cells,(More)