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PURPOSE Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) has been implicated as a causative agent in a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). This study was undertaken to discern the distribution and timing of HPV viral integration during tumorigenesis of the upper respiratory tract. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN A tissue array was assembled from a consecutive(More)
Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, and they are widely used to control plasma cholesterol levels and prevent cardiovascular disease. However, emerging evidence indicates that the beneficial effects of statins extend to the CNS. Statins have been shown to improve the(More)
With more vigilant screening for prostate cancer, there has been an associated increase in patients with little or no residual cancer at radical prostatectomy after an initial diagnosis of minute cancer on needle biopsy. This raises a critical question as to whether the biopsy and subsequent radical prostatectomy in these patients are from the same patient.(More)
Ovarian primitive germ cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon tumors and sometimes pose diagnostic challenges. Among them, yolk sac tumor (YST) poses the greatest diagnostic difficulty and can be mistaken for clear cell carcinoma (CCC). Current immunohistochemical markers such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3, cytokeratin (CK) 7, and epithelial membrane(More)
BACKGROUND Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms are rare malignancies for which the ideal staging method remains controversial. Ki-67 is a cell proliferation marker that has been shown to have some utility in predicting prognosis in neuroendocrine neoplasms. We sought to test the predictive ability of Ki-67 staining for disease recurrence and overall(More)
We immunohistochemically evaluated UTF1 in 104 primary and 68 metastatic testicular germ cell tumors and 339 non-germ cell tumors. The percentage of tumor cells stained was semiquantitatively scored (0, no tumor cell staining; 1+, ≤30% of cells; 2+, 31%-60% of cells; 3+, 61%-90% of cells; 4+, >90% of cells). Staining intensity (nuclear) was scored as weak,(More)
Primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) sometimes pose diagnostic difficulty. In this study we analyzed the diagnostic utility of a novel marker, SALL4, in 77 such tumors (59 pure and 18 mixed) consisting of the following tumors/tumor components: 49 germinomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas, 27 yolk sac tumors, 3 choriocarcinomas, and 14(More)
BACKGROUND The correct diagnosis of metastatic germ cell tumors is critical, because these tumors can be effectively treated and are even cured with modern therapy. Their histopathologic diagnosis can be challenging without immunohistochemical markers, which currently have limitations. SALL4 is a novel stem cell marker essential to maintain pluripotency and(More)
To characterize prognostic values of androgen receptor (AR) in triple-negative (TN) breast cancers, we investigated AR expression status and levels, explored an association of AR expression with metastatic disease, and correlated AR expression with Ki-67 in TN invasive breast carcinomas. AR expression was analyzed with immunohistochemistry in 121 cases of(More)
Metastatic pancreatic mucinous adenocarcinomas in the ovaries can be difficult to distinguish from primary ovarian mucinous neoplasms because the former can simulate the latter grossly and histologically and both tumor types share the same cytokeratin 7/cytokeratin 20 immunoprofile. We previously reported the utility of loss of Dpc4 expression in(More)