Deng Deng Liu

Learn More
In this work, we developed and implemented a multimodality multidimensional imaging system which is capable of generating and displaying anatomical and functional images of selected structures and processes within a vertebrate's central nervous system (CNS). The functional images are generated from [14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) autoradiography whereas the(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-induced chewing movements, tremors, convulsions and hind limb abduction at doses of 50-85% LD50 in rats were monitored in order to determine whether the severity of these different signs would correlate with brain AChE levels and the time course of such a relationship. 30 min after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of Soman, the(More)
Calmodulin contents of cortex, cerebellum, striatum, diencephalon, and medulla + pons and of subcellular fractions of each region were determined by radioimmunoassay. The diencephalon had the highest level of calmodulin (48.87 +/- 4.56 micrograms/mg protein), whereas medulla + pons had the lowest level (8.01 +/- 0.84 micrograms/mg protein). In all brain(More)
Rats were injected sc with 120 micrograms/kg Soman, 120 micrograms/kg Sarin or 240 micrograms/kg Tabun. At 15 min, 2 h, or 6 h after administration, animals were decapitated along with saline-treated controls, and striatal activities of nucleotide cyclases and phosphodiesterases and striatal cyclic nucleotide levels were determined. All three agents had two(More)
Two hours after administration of Soman (120 micrograms/kg, s.c.), Sarin (150 micrograms/kg, s.c.), or Tabun (240 micrograms/kg, s.c.), microsomes and cytosol were prepared from rat striata. Microsomal and cytosolic calmodulin (CaM) levels, microsomal adenylate and guanylate cyclase activities, protein kinase activities, and Ca2+ + Mg2+-ATPase activities(More)
Many reports have suggested that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may play a role in organophosphate-induced convulsions. The balance between GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain also has been suggested by some investigators to be related to brain excitability. We examined these questions by studying the levels of GABA and ACh and the ratios of GABA to(More)
The morphing of an air vehicle is to change its shape and size substantially during flight. Thus, the morphing vehicle is to achieve a broader range of operational modes, all of which will maximize the vehicle performance throughout its mission profile. The dream of human flight has been to mimic birds or insect flights in similar manner since the days of(More)
Age-related differences in opiate receptors were determined using young (1 month old), mature (3 and 8 months old) and aged (20 months old) mice. 3H-Dihydromorphine binding to mu-receptors in brain synaptic membranes consisted of two components: one with high affinity and one with low affinity. High affinity mu binding sites in membranes from young and aged(More)
Others have suggested that organophosphate-induced convulsions are related to changes in levels of cyclic nucleotides, especially in cerebella. We have examined this question by subcutaneously injecting male Sprague-Dawley rats (approx 250-300 gm) with three different doses of soman: a subconvulsive dose of 40 micrograms/kg, a convulsive dose of 120(More)
  • 1