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CONTEXT Without detailed evidence of their effectiveness, pedometers have recently become popular as a tool for motivating physical activity. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of pedometer use with physical activity and health outcomes among outpatient adults. DATA SOURCES English-language articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sport Discus, PsychINFO,(More)
BACKGROUND Induction of labor is on the rise in the U.S., increasing from 9.5 percent in 1990 to 22.1 percent in 2004. Although, it is not entirely clear what proportion of these inductions are elective (i.e. without a medical indication), the overall rate of induction of labor is rising faster than the rate of pregnancy complications that would lead to a(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are alternative treatments for multivessel coronary disease. Although the procedures have been compared in several randomised trials, their long-term effects on mortality in key clinical subgroups are uncertain. We undertook a collaborative analysis of data from(More)
BACKGROUND The rates of induction of labor and elective induction of labor are increasing. Whether elective induction of labor improves outcomes or simply leads to greater complications and health care costs is commonly debated in the literature. PURPOSE To compare the benefits and harms of elective induction of labor and expectant management of(More)
BACKGROUND Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), a hemostatic agent approved for hemophilia, is increasingly used for off-label indications. PURPOSE To evaluate the benefits and harms of rFVIIa use for 5 off-label, in-hospital indications: intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac surgery, trauma, liver transplantation, and prostatectomy. DATA SOURCES Ten databases(More)
The goal of this study is to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Structured MEDLINE and Embase literature searches identified 5473 potentially relevant articles. Thirty-two additional references were collected from the bibliographies. Of the 5505 identified articles, 49 studies reporting data on 3576(More)
CONTEXT Low-carbohydrate diets have been popularized without detailed evidence of their efficacy or safety. The literature has no clear consensus as to what amount of carbohydrates per day constitutes a low-carbohydrate diet. OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in weight, serum lipids, fasting serum glucose, and fasting serum insulin levels, and blood pressure(More)
BACKGROUND The comparative effectiveness of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients in whom both procedures are feasible remains poorly understood. PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of PCI and CABG in patients for whom coronary revascularization is clinically indicated. DATA SOURCES(More)
BACKGROUND There is increased interest in quantitative ultrasound for osteoporosis screening because it predicts fracture risk, is portable, and is relatively inexpensive. However, there is no consensus regarding its accuracy for identifying patients with osteoporosis. PURPOSE To determine the sensitivity and specificity of calcaneal quantitative(More)
BACKGROUND Given the threat of bioterrorism and the increasing availability of electronic data for surveillance, surveillance systems for the early detection of illnesses and syndromes potentially related to bioterrorism have proliferated. PURPOSE To critically evaluate the potential utility of existing surveillance systems for illnesses and syndromes(More)