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Gastropods are members of the Spiralia, a diverse group of invertebrates that share a common early developmental program, which includes spiral cleavage and a larval trochophore stage. The spiral cleavage program results in the division of the embryo into four quadrants. Specification of the dorsal (D) quadrant is intimately linked with body plan(More)
Recent interpretations of developmental gene expression patterns propose that the last common metazoan ancestor was segmented, although most animal phyla show no obvious signs of segmentation. Developmental studies of non-model system trochozoan taxa may shed light on this hypothesis by assessing possible cryptic segmentation patterns. In this paper, we(More)
Here we describe the developmental expression of the three iroquois genes (BfIrxA, BfIrxB, and BfIrxC) of amphioxus. BfIrxB transcription is first detected at the gastrula stage in mesendoderm just within the dorsal lip of the blastopore (a probable homolog of Spemann's organizer) and in ectoderm. In early neurulae, expression begins in presumptive(More)
Wnt-signalling plays a critical role in animal development, and its misregulation results in serious human diseases, including cancer. While the Wnt pathway is well studied in eumetazoan models, little is known about the evolutionary origin of its components and their functions. Here, we have identified key machinery of the Wnt-β-catenin(More)
A role for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in axial patterning has been demonstrated in animals as basal as cnidarians, while roles in axial patterning for retinoic acid (RA) probably evolved in the deuterostomes and may be chordate-specific. In vertebrates, these two pathways interact both directly and indirectly. To investigate the evolutionary origins of(More)
This review examines the basal chordate, amphioxus, as a simple model for providing insights into the development and evolution of the vertebrates, with which it shares many features, including a pharynx perforated with gill slits, a dorsal nerve cord, segmented muscles, and a notochord. Conversely, amphioxus is simpler than vertebrates in lacking neural(More)
Previous studies of vertebrate development have shown that retinoic acid (RA) signaling at the gastrula stage strongly influences anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the neurula and later stages. However, much less is known about the more immediate effects of RA signaling on gene transcription and developmental patterning at the gastrula stage. To(More)
In the basal chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma), somites extend the full length of the body. The anteriormost somites segment during the gastrula and neurula stages from dorsolateral grooves of the archenteron. The remaining ones pinch off, one at a time, from the tail bud. These posterior somites appear to be homologous to those of vertebrates, even though(More)
Incubation of Vicia sativa microsomes, containing cytochrome P450-dependent lauric acid omega-hydroxylase (omega-LAH), with [1-(14)C]11-dodecynoic acid (11-DDYA) generates a major metabolite characterized as 1,12-dodecandioic acid. In addition to time- and concentration-dependent inactivation of lauric acid and 11-DDYA oxidation, irreversible binding of(More)
Although chordates descend from a segmented ancestor, the evolution of head segmentation has been very controversial for over 150 years. Chordates generally possess a segmented pharynx, but even though anatomical evidence and gene expression analyses suggest homologies between the pharyngeal apparatus of invertebrate chordates, such as the cephalochordate(More)