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Raised levels of free fatty acids (FFA) compete with glucose for utilization by insulin-sensitive tissues, and, therefore, they may induce insulin resistance in the normal subject. The influence of experimental elevations in FFA levels on glucose metabolism in native insulin-resistant states is not known. We studied seven women with moderate obesity (63%(More)
Gastric bypass surgery leads to marked improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetes (T2D); the impact on glucose fluxes in response to a physiological stimulus, such as a mixed meal test (MTT), has not been determined. We administered an MTT to 12 obese T2D patients and 15 obese nondiabetic (ND) subjects before and 1(More)
In normal subjects, insulin decreases the urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and uric acid. We tested whether these renal effects of insulin are altered in insulin resistant hypertension. In 37 patients with essential hypertension, we measured the changes in urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and uric acid in response to physiological euglycemic(More)
Preferential visceral adipose tissue (VAT) deposition has been associated with the presence of insulin resistance in obese and diabetic subjects. The independent association of VAT accumulation with hypertension and its impact on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function have not been assessed. We measured VAT and subcutaneous fat depots by multiscan MRI(More)
Mild-to-moderate hypertension is often associated with insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Whether these metabolic abnormalities have an independent impact on regional cardiac function is not known. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of increased blood pressure, insulin resistance, and ectopic fat accumulation on the changes in(More)
Under resting conditions, the failing heart shifts fuel use toward greater glucose and lower free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation. We hypothesized that chronic metabolic abnormalities in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are associated with the absence of the normal increase in myocardial glucose uptake and maintenance of cardiac mechanical efficiency(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous studies have highlighted the associations between abdominal, cardiac or total fat accumulation and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different ectopic fat depots on measurements of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS Using magnetic resonance imaging in 113 subjects,(More)
Metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities have been separately described in obesity, and weight reduction is known to lead to some improvement in each. Our aim was to simultaneously assess metabolic and cardiovascular function in normotensive, normotolerant patients with moderate obesity (body mass index = 32.6 +/- 1.1 kg/m2) before and after weight loss. The(More)
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects(More)
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1-RAs) act on multiple tissues, in addition to the pancreas. Recent studies suggest that GLP-1-RAs act on liver and adipose tissue to reduce insulin resistance (IR). Thus, we evaluated the acute effects of exenatide (EX) on hepatic (Hep-IR) and adipose (Adipo-IR) insulin resistance and glucose uptake.(More)