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The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Proteolysis Site (GPS) of cell-adhesion GPCRs and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) proteins constitutes a highly conserved autoproteolysis sequence, but its catalytic mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that unexpectedly the ∼40-residue GPS motif represents an integral part of a much larger ∼320-residue domain that(More)
Neurexins and neuroligins provide trans-synaptic connectivity by the Ca2+-dependent interaction of their alternatively spliced extracellular domains. Neuroligins specify synapses in an activity-dependent manner, presumably by binding to neurexins. Here, we present the crystal structures of neuroligin-1 in isolation and in complex with neurexin-1 beta.(More)
Synaptotagmin 1 probably functions as a Ca2+ sensor in neurotransmitter release via its two C2-domains, but no common Ca2+-dependent activity that could underlie a cooperative action between them has been described. The NMR structure of the C2B-domain now reveals a beta sandwich that exhibits striking similarities and differences with the C2A-domain.(More)
During neurotransmitter release, the neuronal SNARE proteins synaptobrevin/VAMP, syntaxin, and SNAP-25 form a four-helix bundle, the SNARE complex, that pulls the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes together possibly causing membrane fusion. Complexin binds tightly to the SNARE complex and is essential for efficient Ca(2+)-evoked neurotransmitter release.(More)
Synaptotagmin acts as a Ca(2+) sensor in neurotransmitter release through its two C(2) domains. Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid binding is key for synaptotagmin function, but it is unclear how this activity cooperates with the SNARE complex involved in release or why Ca(2+) binding to the C(2)B domain is more crucial for release than Ca(2+) binding to the(More)
Postsynaptic neuroligins are thought to perform essential functions in synapse validation and synaptic transmission by binding to, and dimerizing, presynaptic alpha- and beta-neurexins. To test this hypothesis, we examined the functional effects of neuroligin-1 mutations that impair only alpha-neurexin binding, block both alpha- and beta-neurexin binding,(More)
Synaptotagmin I is a synaptic vesicle protein that contains two C(2) domains and acts as a Ca(2+) sensor in neurotransmitter release. The Ca(2+)-binding properties of the synaptotagmin I C(2)A domain have been well characterized, but those of the C(2)B domain are unclear. The C(2)B domain was previously found to pull down synaptotagmin I from brain(More)
Selenium has significant health benefits, including potent cancer prevention activity and roles in immune function and the male reproductive system. Selenium-containing proteins, which incorporate this essential micronutrient as selenocysteine, are proposed to mediate the positive effects of dietary selenium. Presented here are the solution NMR structures(More)
Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding to the C2A and C2B domains of synaptotagmin 1 is thought to trigger fast neurotransmitter release, but only Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is essential for release. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we have compared the role of basic residues in Ca2+/phospholipid binding and in release. Mutations in a polybasic(More)
The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature(More)