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Methadone has become one of the most widely used drugs for opiate dependency treatment. This drug is extensively metabolized by the cytochrome P450 hepatic enzyme family in man, yielding an N-demethylated metabolite that cyclizes spontaneously into 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine. The specific forms of cytochrome P450 involved in this(More)
Buprenorphine is a long acting analgesic of the opiate family. Recently, it has been proposed for the opioid dependency treatment at a large scale. The drug is extensively metabolized by the hepatic cytochrome P450 in man, yielding a N-dealkylated metabolite, norbuprenorphine. The specific forms of P450 involved in this oxidative N-demethylation were(More)
The induction effects of pyrazole and dexamethasone (known to be specific to P450 2E1 and 3A enzymes, respectively), given alone or simultaneously, were studied in rat liver and kidney microsomes. Pyrazole treatment induced the catalytic activity and the amount of P450 2E1 enzyme in both organs. Immunoreactive P450 2E1 and 4-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylation(More)
Ritonavir, indinavir, and saquinavir, all human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease inhibitors with a potent antiviral effect during triple therapy, are extensively metabolized by liver cytochrome P450 3A4. As this P450 isoform is involved in the metabolism of about 50% of drugs, coadministration of protease inhibitors with other drugs may lead to serious(More)
In vitro techniques have been used to investigate the nature of microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the metabolism of oleic acid, a physiological monounsaturated fatty acid. Like lauric acid, which is currently used as a model substrate of fatty acid metabolism, the alkyl chain of oleic acid is hydroxylated on its omega and (omega-1) carbons. The(More)
Methadone and buprenorphine, widely used in the treatment of opioid abuse, are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4, while fluoxetine and fluvoxamine, both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, are known to be P450 2D6 and 3A4 inhibitors in vitro. This study deals with the in vitro interactions between methadone or buprenorphine and fluoxetine or(More)
Human liver microsomes and recombinant human P450 have been used as enzyme source in order to better understand the requirement for the optimal rate of omega and (omega;-1)-hydroxylations of fatty acids by cytochromes P450 2E1 and 4A. Three parameters were studied: alkyl chain length, presence and configuration of double bond(s) in the alkyl chain, and(More)
4-Nitrophenol 2-hydroxylation activity was previously shown to be mainly catalyzed by P450 2E1 in animal species and humans. As this chemical compound is widely used as an in vitro probe for P450 2E1, this study was carried out to test its catalytic specificity. First, experiments were carried out on liver microsomes and hepatocyte cultures of rat treated(More)
1. Caffeine was used as a molecular probe for hepatic monooxygenase activity in three in vitro models from human livers: slices, microsomes and hepatocyte cultures. 2. A h.p.l.c. method for determination of all possible metabolites of caffeine (16 compounds) is described. 3. Caffeine biotransformation by these three in vitro systems was low. However,(More)
A computer program for parenteral and combined parenteral and enteral nutrition of children in intensive care unit is described. It acts as a guide for the prescribing physician by using informative messages, food composition tables and alarms when mistakes or uncommon prescription values are input from the keyboard.