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The large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, shows a seasonal polyphenism of wing melanisation, spring individuals being darker than summer individuals. This phenotypic plasticity is supposed to be an adaptive response for thermoregulation in natural populations. However, the variation in individuals' response, the cause of this variation (genetic, non(More)
BACKGROUND In coming decades the proportion of very elderly people living in the Western world will dramatically increase. This forthcoming "grey epidemic" will lead to an explosion of chronic diseases. In order to anticipate booming health care expenditures and to assure that social security is funded in the future, research focusing on the relationship(More)
Through multiple vegetative propagation cycles, clones accumulate mutations in somatic cells that are at the origin of clonal phenotypic diversity in grape. Clonal diversity provided clones such as Cabernet-Sauvignon N°470, Chardonnay N° 548 and Pinot noir N° 777 which all produce wines of superior quality. The economic impact of clonal selection is(More)
Dispersal of organisms generates gene flow between populations. Identifying factors that influence dispersal will help predict how species will cope with rapid environmental change. We developed an innovative infrastructure, the Metatron, composed of 48 interconnected patches, designed for the study of terrestrial organism movement as a model for dispersal.(More)
The large burden and coexistence of physical disability, cognitive impairment, and depression in the oldest old makes summary markers of global functioning of great value, allowing for risk stratification. Inflammation may be a common underlying cause or represents a final common pathway. The present study investigated the association between elevated serum(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases with age, and new glomerular filtration rate-estimating equations have recently been validated. The epidemiology of CKD in older individuals and the relationship between a low estimated glomerular filtration rate as calculated by these equations and adverse outcomes remains unknown. (More)
Determining the presence or absence of gene flow between populations is the target of some statistical methods in population genetics. Until recently, these methods either avoided the use of recombining genes, or treated recombination as a nuisance parameter. However, genes with recombination contribute additional information for the detection of gene flow(More)
Spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of phenotypes among populations is of major importance for species evolution and ecosystem functioning. Dispersal has long been assumed to homogenise populations in structured landscapes by generating maladapted gene flows, making spatial heterogeneity of phenotypes traditionally considered resulting from local(More)
1. Sex-biased dispersal, that is, the difference in dispersal between males and females, is thought to be the consequence of any divergent evolutionary responses between sexes. In anisogamous species, asymmetry in parental investment may lead to sexual conflict, which entails male-male competition (for sexual partner access), female-female competition (for(More)
Boloria eunomia is a boreo-montane butterfly species suffering from habitat loss and isolation in the relictual part of its distribution range. Small populations persist in habitats scattered on plateaux or low mountains in western, central and southern Europe. Quantifying gene flow within and between these remnant populations is thus a crucial point to(More)