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Memory CD8(+) T lymphocytes are critical effector cells of the adaptive immune system mediating long-lived pathogen-specific protective immunity. Three signals - antigen, costimulation and inflammation - orchestrate optimal CD8(+) T-cell priming and differentiation into effector and memory cells and shape T-cell functional fate and ability to protect(More)
Cytolysis, interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha secretion are major effector mechanisms of memory CD8+ T cells that are believed to be required for immunological protection in vivo. By using mutants of the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, we found that none of these effector activities is sufficient to protect against(More)
Induction of efficient adaptive T cell-mediated immunity against the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes requires its successful invasion of host cell cytosol. However, it is not clear whether its cytosolic escape and growth are sufficient to induce T cell-mediated clearance and protection upon secondary infection. To investigate this issue, we(More)
The SecA2 auxiliary secretion system of Gram-positive bacteria promotes the export of virulence proteins essential for colonization of the host in the case of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Listeria monocytogenes, two intracellular bacteria causing diseases in humans. We and others have demonstrated that this secretion system is also linked to the(More)
Memory CD8 ϩ T cells represent the major eff ector arm of the adaptive immune system to maintain long-lived protective immunity against intracellular bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. In secondary infected individuals, pathogen-specifi c memory CD8 ϩ T lymphocytes are required for both the elimination of infected cells and host survival (1). Upon(More)
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