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Melanocortins are neuropeptides with well recognized anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in the brain. Of the five melanocortin receptors (MCR), MC4R is abundantly expressed in the brain and is the only MCR present in astrocytes. We have previously shown that MC4R activation by the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analog, NDP-MSH, increased(More)
Giardia lamblia trophozoites are flagellated protozoa that inhabit the human small intestine, where they are exposed to various dietary lipids and fatty acids. It is believed that G. lamblia, which colonizes a lipid-rich environment of the human small intestine, is unable to synthesize phospholipids, long-chain fatty acids, and sterols de novo. Therefore,(More)
mAb 192 is a rat monoclonal antibody with very high affinity for the major immunogenic region (MIR) of the human muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). An epitope mimic of this antibody was selected from a phage display peptide library screened with mAb 192. The peptide-presenting phage has been shown to specifically bind to solid phase mAb 192 with an(More)
α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is an anti-inflammatory peptide, proved to be beneficial in many neuroinflammatory disorders acting through melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R). We previously determined that rat microglial cells express MC4R and that NDP-MSH, an analog of α-MSH, induces PPAR-γ expression and IL-10 release in these cells. Given the great(More)
Microglial cells are responsible for immune surveillance within the CNS. They respond to noxious stimuli by releasing inflammatory mediators and mounting an effective inflammatory response. This is followed by release of anti-inflammatory mediators and resolution of the inflammatory response. Alterations to this delicate process may lead to tissue damage,(More)
Astrocytes are now fully endorsed as key players in CNS functionality and plasticity. We recently showed that metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3R) activation by LY379268 promotes non-amyloidogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cultured astrocytes, leading to increased release of neuroprotective sAPPα. Furthermore, mGlu3R expression is(More)
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