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Four genotypes named SP2A, SP2B, SP2C and SP2D were obtained in vivo by infecting S. exigua larvae with limiting dilutions of the Spanish field isolate Spodoptera exigua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Se-SP2) of SeMNPV. The cloning of variants SP2A, SP2B and SP2C took 1, 6, and 3 passages, respectively, before the DNA profiles showed all bands in equimolar(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies,(More)
The DNA restriction map for the enzymes BamHI, BglII, PstI, and XbaI of SeMNPV-US (Se-US), the best-studied Nucleopolyhedrovirus strain isolated from Spodoptera exigua in California, was used as a reference to construct that of SeMNPV-SP2 (Se-SP2), a closely related Spanish strain of the same virus. After coinfection of S. exigua with both the Se-US and(More)
The baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) has high potential for development as a bio-insecticide for control of the beet armyworm (S. exigua). It is highly infectious for S. exigua larvae and its host range is very narrow. A prerequisite for such application is the possibility of growing this virus in large quantities,(More)
An insect nucleopolyhedrovirus naturally survives as a mixture of at least nine genotypes. Infection by multiple genotypes results in the production of virus occlusion bodies (OBs) with greater pathogenicity than those of any genotype alone. We tested the hypothesis that each OB contains a genotypically diverse population of virions. Few insects died(More)
Genotypic and phenotypic variation of SeMNPV was examined in seven isolates of SeMNPV originating from occlusion body (OB) populations in the soil of greenhouses in Spain. Semi-quantitative PCR indicated that some of the isolates were composed of a single dominant genotype, whereas other isolates were composed of two or three genotypes in equal proportions.(More)
Quality control during mass production of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV), and studies on environmental fate following the use of this virus as a biological pesticide, would be facilitated by a rapid method for the detection and identification of isolates. A molecular biology tool was developed that combined the polymerase chain(More)
Population reduction of mosquitoes is an effective method for controlling dengue fever and malaria transmission. Recent developments in control techniques include proposals to construct transgenic strains of mosquitoes carrying dominant, conditional-lethal genes under the control of sex- and stage-specific promoters. In order to identify such promoters,(More)
The complete genomic sequence of a Nicaraguan plaque purified Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) genotype SfMNPV-B was determined and compared to previously sequenced isolates from United States (SfMNPV-3AP2) and Brazil (SfMNPV-19). The genome of SfMNPV-B (132,954bp) was 1623bp and 389bp larger than that of SfMNPV-3AP2 and SfMNPV-19,(More)