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The baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) has high potential for development as a bio-insecticide for control of the beet armyworm (S. exigua). It is highly infectious for S. exigua larvae and its host range is very narrow. A prerequisite for such application is the possibility of growing this virus in large quantities,(More)
The DNA restriction map for the enzymes BamHI, BglII, PstI, and XbaI of SeMNPV-US (Se-US), the best-studied Nucleopolyhedrovirus strain isolated from Spodoptera exigua in California, was used as a reference to construct that of SeMNPV-SP2 (Se-SP2), a closely related Spanish strain of the same virus. After coinfection of S. exigua with both the Se-US and(More)
Four genotypes named SP2A, SP2B, SP2C and SP2D were obtained in vivo by infecting S. exigua larvae with limiting dilutions of the Spanish field isolate Spodoptera exigua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Se-SP2) of SeMNPV. The cloning of variants SP2A, SP2B and SP2C took 1, 6, and 3 passages, respectively, before the DNA profiles showed all bands in equimolar(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies,(More)
The complete genomic sequence of a Nicaraguan plaque purified Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) genotype SfMNPV-B was determined and compared to previously sequenced isolates from United States (SfMNPV-3AP2) and Brazil (SfMNPV-19). The genome of SfMNPV-B (132,954bp) was 1623bp and 389bp larger than that of SfMNPV-3AP2 and SfMNPV-19,(More)
In this work, we report the genome sequencing of two Bacillus thuringiensis strains using Illumina next-generation sequencing technology (NGS). Strain Hu4-2, toxic to many lepidopteran pest species and to some mosquitoes, encoded genes for two insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins, cry1Ia and cry9Ea, and a vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) gene, vip3Ca2.(More)
Genotypic and phenotypic variation of SeMNPV was examined in seven isolates of SeMNPV originating from occlusion body (OB) populations in the soil of greenhouses in Spain. Semi-quantitative PCR indicated that some of the isolates were composed of a single dominant genotype, whereas other isolates were composed of two or three genotypes in equal proportions.(More)
An insect nucleopolyhedrovirus naturally survives as a mixture of at least nine genotypes. Infection by multiple genotypes results in the production of virus occlusion bodies (OBs) with greater pathogenicity than those of any genotype alone. We tested the hypothesis that each OB contains a genotypically diverse population of virions. Few insects died(More)
The insecticidal potency of a nucleopolyhedrovirus population (SfNIC) that infects Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera) is greater than the potency of any of the component genotypes alone. Occlusion bodies (OBs) produced in mixed infections comprising the complete genotype and a deletion genotype are as pathogenic as the natural population of genotypes from(More)