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AIM To examine the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Iranian Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) strains isolated from two major hospitals in Tehran. METHODS Examination of antibiotic resistance was performed on 120 strains by modified disc diffusion test and PCR-RFLP methods. In addition, in order to identify the possible causes of the therapeutic failure(More)
Earlier generations of Leishmania vaccines have reached the third-phase of clinical trials, however none of them have shown adequate efficacy due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLNs) were used to formulate three pDNAs encoding L. major cysteine proteinase type I (cpa), II (cpb) and III (cpc). BALB/c(More)
Solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) is a very well tolerated carrier systems for dermal application due to the employment physiological and/or biodegradable lipids. The effects of five factors, two categorical and three quantitative factors, were studied on the mean diameter and entrapment efficiency of the produced SLNs using response surface method (RSM),(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and domestic animals that constitutes a serious public health problem in many countries. Although many antigens have been examined so far as protein- or DNA-based vaccines, none of them conferred complete long-term protection. The use of the lizard non-pathogenic to humans Leishmania(More)
Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease that leads to high mortality and morbidity in human populations. Today, leishmaniasis is managed via drug therapy. The drugs that are already in clinical use are limited to a number of toxic chemical compounds and their parasite drug resistance is increasing. It is therefore essential, in order to circumvent the current(More)
Appropriate adjuvant, proper antigen(s) and a suitable formulation are required to develop stable, safe and immunogenic vaccines. Leishmanial cysteine proteinase type I (CPB) is a promising vaccine candidate; nevertheless, it requires a delivery system to induce a potent immune response. Herein, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been applied for CPB(More)
Although mass vaccination of the entire population of an endemic area would be the most cost-effective tool to diminish Leishmania burden, an effective vaccine is not yet commercially available. Practically, vaccines have failed to achieve the required level of protection, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant and/or delivery system.(More)
PURPOSE Leishmaniasis is a major health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries and development of a safe and easily-available vaccine has high priority. Although several antigens potentially capable of inducing protective immunity have been studied, in the absence of pharmaceutical industry interest they have remained as fine publications only.(More)
The use of an appropriate delivery system has recently emerged as a promising approach for the development of effective vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Here, we compare two vaccine delivery systems, namely electroporation and cationic solid-lipid nanoparticle (cSLN) formulation, to administer a DNA vaccine harbouring the L. donovani A2(More)