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BACKGROUND Numerous studies have demonstrated elevated kappa free light chains (KFLCs) in CSF of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, so far only small cohorts have been examined, and generally only through qualitative KFLCs analysis. Using a recently developed free light chain (FLC) immunoassay, it is now possible to quantitatively measure KFLCs by(More)
The novel heavy/light chain (HLC) assay was used for the detection and measurement of monoclonal immunoglobulins, response evaluation and prognostication. This test allows identification and quantification of the different light chain types of each immunoglobulin class (for example, IgGκ and IgGλ) and enables calculation of ratios of monoclonal/polyclonal(More)
BACKGROUND One measure of an opioid's efficacy is its ability to retain its analgesic effect as the intensity of a noxious stimulus is increased. A few studies have assessed the ability of either spinal or systemic opioids to produce analgesia using low- and high-intensity stimulation. There are little data available to show whether there are differences in(More)
BACKGROUND Quantification of kappa free light chains (KFLC) in cerebrospinal fluid shows high diagnostic sensitivity in multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome patients. However, a clearly defined threshold value is still missing and a possible prognostic value of the KFLC levels in these patients remains undefined. METHODS Results of KFLC(More)
2-2'Pyridylisatogen tosylate (PIT), which antagonizes the inhibitory action of ATP in the taenia caeci, did not antagonize the excitatory effects of exogenous ATP and of purinergic stimulation of the terminal guinea-pig ileum. PIT (0-5--2-5 muM) potentiated the ATP-induced contractions and also the contractions produced by potassium chloride, though the(More)
Heavy light chain (HLC) assays allow precise measurement of the monoclonal and of the noninvolved polyclonal immunoglobulins of the same isotype as the M-protein (e.g., monoclonal IgAκ and polyclonal IgAλ in case of an IgAκ myeloma), which was not possible before. The noninvolved polyclonal immunoglobulin is termed 'HLC-matched pair'. We investigated the(More)
The Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata computing paradigm (QCA) is based on the electrostatic interaction between QCA cells. Therefore, the correct functionality of the QCA systems strongly depends on the geometrical positions of the cells. Given that during the manufacturing process, the positioning cannot be done with 100% accuracy the question rises by how(More)
Adenosine, cAMP and db-cAMP were found to inhibit nerve-mediated contractions of the terminal ileum elicited by electrical stimulation (ES). Responses to ES at 30 Hz, which are believed to be of adrenergic origin, were considerably more affected than the responses to ES at 3 Hz, which may be of purinergic orign. The following order of relative inhibitory(More)
1 An interaction between adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and noradrenaline (NA) was investigated in the isolated vas deferens of the guinea-pig. 2 ATP (1.7 to 50 microM) enhanced contractions due to transmural electrical stimulation (ES; parameters: 30 Hz, 0.2 to 0.3 ms, 10 to 30 V; 1 s train duration). Responses to exogenous NA (12 microM) were also(More)
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