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The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm(More)
BACKGROUND The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their(More)
If an objective swallowing assessment reveals that a particular patient is at risk of aspirating liquids into the trachea while drinking, speech and language therapists may prescribe a commercial "thickening agent" to mix into their drinks. If used correctly, these can help to reduce the risk of aspiration. This study compared the palatability of the five(More)
Fiftyfour thousand diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon were tagged with coded-wire micro-tags and released to the sea as smolts from two freshwater sites in Ireland in 1996 and 1997. Over 36,000 were mixed-sex groups in which the triploids (MS3N) were treated batches and the diploids (MS2N) were untreated batches of a single group of fertilized eggs at(More)
We demonstrate a regenerative optical grooming switch for buffer-less interconnection of metro/access and metro/core ring networks with switching functionality in time, space and wavelength domain. Key functionalities of the router are the traffic aggregation with time-slot interchanging (TSI) functionality, the WDM-to-ODTM multiplexing and the OTDM-to-WDM(More)
We propose and numerically analyse an asynchronous digital optical regenerator using a single-EAM loop and a novel neighbor-combine approach. It effectively re-synchronizes input signals with arbitrary phases to the local clock, and regenerates signals with high amplitude fluctuation and polarization mode dispersion. We demonstrate the application of this(More)
Pedigree reconstruction using genetic analysis provides a useful means to estimate fundamental population biology parameters relating to population demography, trait heritability and individual fitness when combined with other sources of data. However, there remain limitations to pedigree reconstruction in wild populations, particularly in systems where(More)
The 1-MW 3-nsec output from a commercial nitrogen laser has been frequency tripled in krypton to generate vacuum-ultraviolet 1124-A radiation. Conversion efficiencies of up to 10(-6) and optimum krypton gas pressures as high as 4-5 atm were found. Preliminary experiments using a para-terphenyl dye laser have yielded tunable radiation in the 1116-1165-A(More)