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Morphogenesis in sea urchin embryos: linking cellular events to gene regulatory network states
Gastrulation in the sea urchin begins with ingression of the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) at the vegetal pole of the embryo. After entering the blastocoel the PMCs migrate, form a syncitium, andExpand
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Deployment of regulatory genes during gastrulation and germ layer specification in a model spiralian mollusc Crepidula
Background: During gastrulation, endoderm and mesoderm are specified from a bipotential precursor (endomesoderm) that is argued to be homologous across bilaterians. Spiralians also generate mesodermExpand
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Spiralian gastrulation: germ layer formation, morphogenesis, and fate of the blastopore in the slipper snail Crepidula fornicata
BackgroundGastrulation is a critical step in bilaterian development, directly linked to the segregation of germ layers, establishment of axes, and emergence of the through-gut. Theories about theExpand
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Ins and outs of Spiralian gastrulation.
Gastrulation is a critical stage of metazoan development during which endodermal and mesodermal tissues are internalized, and morphogenesis transforms the early embryo into each animal's uniqueExpand
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Cleavage pattern and fate map of the mesentoblast, 4d, in the gastropod Crepidula: a hallmark of spiralian development
BackgroundAnimals with a spiral cleavage program, such as mollusks and annelids, make up the majority of the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. The great diversity of larval and adult body plans in thisExpand
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Branching out: Origins of the sea urchin larval skeleton in development and evolution
It is a challenge to understand how the information encoded in DNA is used to build a three‐dimensional structure. To explore how this works the assembly of a relatively simple skeleton has beenExpand
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The significance and scope of evolutionary developmental biology: a vision for the 21st century
Evolutionary developmental biology (evo‐devo) has undergone dramatic transformations since its emergence as a distinct discipline. This paper aims to highlight the scope, power, and future promise ofExpand
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Maternal expression of a NANOS homolog is required for early development of the leech Helobdella robusta.
The gene nanos (nos) is a maternal posterior group gene required for normal development of abdominal segments and the germ line in Drosophila. Expression of nos-related genes is associated with theExpand
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Specification to biomineralization: following a single cell type as it constructs a skeleton.
The sea urchin larva is shaped by a calcite endoskeleton. That skeleton is built by 64 primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) in Lytechinus variegatus. The PMCs originate as micromeres due to an unequalExpand
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Left-Right Asymmetry in the Sea Urchin Embryo: BMP and the Asymmetrical Origins of the Adult
The entire adult sea urchin develops on the left side of the larva. This Primer discusses a new study that reports that BMP signalling activates this process while Nodal signalling inhibits it on theExpand
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