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To characterize the role of neurotrophin receptors on macrophages, we investigated the ability of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor, proNGF, to regulate human macrophage phenotype. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and TrkA were concentrated within overlapping domains on membrane ruffles. NGF stimulation of macrophages increased membrane(More)
Animals act under the influence of mental representations that result from a variety of internal and external factors. Understanding how animals create, activate, and manipulate such representations is a central concern for studies of animal learning and memory. A variety of techniques (e.g., delayed matching-to-sample tasks and maze tasks) have been(More)
Epithelial cells of the gut, antennal glands, integument, and gills of crustaceans regulate the movements of ions into and across these structures and thereby influence the concentrations of ions in the hemolymph. Specific transport proteins serving cations and anions are found on apical and basolateral cell membranes of epithelia in these tissues. In(More)
The choroid plexus is a multifunctional organ that sits at the interface between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It serves as a gateway for immune cell trafficking into the CSF and is in an excellent position to provide continuous immune surveillance by CD4 (+) T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells and to regulate immune cell trafficking in(More)
Macrophage and microglial activation by HIV in the central nervous system (CNS) triggers the secretion of soluble factors which damage neurons. Therapeutic approaches designed to restore cognitive function by suppressing this inflammatory activity have not yet been successful. Recent studies have indicated that the phenotype of macrophages is differentially(More)
Essay (no 8 on the March 15th list) " Apes cannot be taught language, but there is evidence that they have special abilities in the areas of social learning, imitation, and self-recognition. " Discuss. 1. Copies of selected Overheads are attached. 2. There are notes in the Easter Handout for Summer Term Lectures 3. Updated versions of these notes are given(More)
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