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An A118G nucleotide exchange in exon 1 of the mu-opioid receptor causes an Asn40Asp substitution polymorphism in the receptor's extracellular domain. In vitro studies show that the Asp40 variant of the mu-opioid receptor binds beta-endorphin three times more avidly than the more common Asn40 variant. Paraventricular corticotropin releasing hormone neurons,(More)
Research on the reinforcing effects of providing choice-making opportunities to individuals with developmental disabilities (i.e., allowing them to choose reinforcers or tasks) has produced inconsistent results, perhaps because the mechanisms underlying such effects remain unclear. Choice may produce a reinforcement effect because it is correlated with(More)
An adolescent with severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy who displayed attention-maintained destructive behavior was exposed to noncontingent reinforcer delivery (NCR) with either a high-preference or a low-preference stimulus while reinforcement for destructive behavior with attention remained in effect (i.e., NCR without extinction). NCR without(More)
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