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Calcium-dependent inactivation has been described as a negative feedback mechanism for regulating voltage-dependent calcium influx in cardiac cells. Most recent evidence points to the C-terminus of the alpha1C subunit, with its EF-hand binding motif, as being critical in this process. The EF-hand binding motif is mostly conserved between the C-termini of(More)
The alpha1 subunit coding for the human brain type E calcium channel (Schneider et al., 1994) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes in the absence, and in combination with auxiliary alpha2delta and beta subunits. alpha1E channels directed with the expression of Ba2+ whole-cell currents that completely inactivated after a 2-sec membrane pulse. Coexpression of(More)
Nonepileptic episodic phenomena are reported in 27 of 124 children (21.8%) who had video-electroencephalographic studies performed. Mean age was 7.4 years (S.D.: 6.0; range: 0.1-19). Nineteen (70%) were neurologically impaired (Group 1) and 8 (30%) neurologically normal (Group 2). The final diagnoses included movement sequences (48%), conversion disorder(More)
Millions of children are infected by enteroviruses each year, usually exhibiting only mild symptoms. Although enteroviruses are a common cause of community-acquired aseptic meningitis, enteroviral meningitis usually has a benign course. We describe a 14-year-old patient with enteroviral meningoencephalitis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction. Her level(More)
Although infantile spasms (IS) constitute a well-recognized epileptic syndrome, only recently did investigators propose that spasms be classified as a distinct seizure type, characterized by axial flexion/extension jerks in clusters. Five older children (aged 4.5-14.2 years) who underwent video-EEG monitoring in 1992 in our epilepsy program for intractable(More)
A child had two to three generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures per week unresponsive to phenobarbital (PB) and valproate (VPA). Interictal EEG demonstrated left occipital spikes. When carbamazepine (CBZ) therapy was started, he developed very frequent (4-6/day) complex partial seizures (CPS) characterized on ictal EEG by focal right temporal lobe(More)
Free-living amebae etiologically associated with central nervous system (CNS) infection in children have included Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and recently, leptomyxid ameba. Two previously healthy children are reported with CNS infection caused by leptomyxid ameba, recently classified as Balamuthia mandrillaris. One child, a 27-month-old boy, had right(More)
Bilateral long-term surface cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) and electrocorticographic (ECoG) monitoring were performed in eight patients with complex partial seizures. In each patient, the epileptic temporal lobe was localized using ictal ECoG. Mean seizure interval (frequency-1) off anticonvulsant medication, a clinical measure of epileptogenicity, was(More)
Long-term subdural surface cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) and electrocorticographic monitoring was performed in 12 patients with complex partial seizures. A total of 40 seizures were analyzed. Baseline CBF values from nonepileptic and epileptic temporal lobe (mean +/- standard error) were 60.0 +/- 1.0 and 50.2 +/- 1.8 ml/100 g per minute, respectively(More)
Carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E), the principal metabolite of carbamazepine (CBZ), is reported to have antiepileptic and toxic effects similar to CBZ. Steady-state CBZ and CBZ-E levels (high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC assay) were reviewed in 225 outpatient children and young adults taking CBZ with or without other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).(More)