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Research and clinical investigations in psychiatry largely rely on the de facto assumption that the diagnostic categories identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) represent homogeneous syndromes. However, the mechanistic heterogeneity that potentially underlies the existing classification scheme might limit discovery of etiology for most(More)
BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major public health concern. It has been suggested that the brain's default network may provide a crucial avenue for understanding the neurobiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Evaluations of the default network have increased over recent years with the applied technique of(More)
Recent years have witnessed a surge of investigations examining functional brain organization using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI). To date, this method has been used to examine systems organization in typical and atypical developing populations. While the majority of these investigations have focused on cortical-cortical interactions,(More)
In recent years, there has been growing enthusiasm that functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could achieve clinical utility for a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, several barriers remain. For example, the acquisition of large-scale datasets capable of clarifying the marked heterogeneity that exists in psychiatric illnesses will(More)
OBJECTIVE Identification of biomarkers is a priority for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies have documented macrostructural brain alterations in ADHD, but few have examined white matter microstructure, particularly in preadolescent children. Given dramatic white matter maturation across childhood, microstructural differences seen in(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder that has poor long-term outcomes and remains a major public health concern. Recent theories have proposed that ADHD arises from alterations in multiple neural pathways. Alterations in reward circuits are hypothesized as one core dysfunction, leading to altered processing of(More)
INTRODUCTION Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) captures a heterogeneous group of children, who are characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Previous resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) studies have sought to understand the neural correlates of ADHD by comparing connectivity measurements between those with(More)
Spatial modeling is essential for fMRI analysis due to relatively high noise in the data. Earlier approaches have been primarily concerned with the spatial coherence of the BOLD response in local neighborhoods. In addition to a smoothness constraint, we propose to incorporate prior knowledge of brain activation patterns learned from training samples. This(More)
Recent past has seen an inexorable shift towards the use of deep learning techniques to solve a myriad of problems in the field of medical imaging. In this paper, a novel segmentation method involving a fully-connected deep neural network called Deep Segmentation Network (DSN) is proposed to perform supervised regression for brain extraction from(More)
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a key diagnostic tool to visualize the heart's activity and to study its normal or abnormal functioning. Physicians perform routine diagnosis by visually examining the shapes of ECG waveform. However, automatic processing and classification of ECG data would be extremely useful in patient monitoring and telemedicine systems. Such(More)