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Glycine serves as a neurotransmitter in spinal cord and brain stem, where it activates inhibitory glycine receptors. In addition, it serves as an essential co-agonist of excitatory N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. In the central nervous system, extracellular glycine concentrations are regulated by two specific glycine transporters (GlyTs), GlyT1 and GlyT2.(More)
Noncoding expansions of a hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC) in the C9orf72 gene are the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Here we report transgenic mice carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the full human C9orf72 gene with either a normal allele (15 repeats) or disease-associated(More)
Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) is a microbial-type rhodopsin with a putative heptahelical structure that binds all-trans-retinal. Blue light illumination of ChR2 activates an intrinsic leak channel conductive for cations. Sequence comparison of ChR2 with the related ChR1 protein revealed a cluster of charged amino acids within the predicted transmembrane domain(More)
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