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Topical medications remain the mainstay of glaucoma treatment. This review will aim to cover the pharmacokinetics of topically applied drops, the ocular barriers to drug delivery, and the role of ophthalmic drug formulation in enhancing drug delivery to the target tissue while minimizing side effects and increasing patient compliance. Recent advances in(More)
Drug delivery to the eye is hampered by anatomical factors, including the corneal epithelium, the blood-aqueous barrier and the blood-retinal barrier. This review aims to outline the major routes of ocular drug delivery, including systemic, topical, periocular and intravitreal. The pharmacokinetics, the disadvantages and the clinical relevance of these drug(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the periocular injections: posterior subtenon (PST), retrobulbar (RB), and subconjunctival (SC) injection. METHODS Two sodium fluorescein (NaF) concentrations, 2.5 mg in 0.1 mL (NaF1) and 2.5 mg in 0.5 mL (NaF2) were injected into live rabbits by the PST (NaF1 n = 4, NaF2 n = 3), RB (NaF1 n = 10), SC (NaF1 n =(More)
PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that coated microneedles can deliver drugs into the eye via intrascleral and intracorneal routes in a minimally invasive manner. METHODS Solid metal microneedles measuring 500 to 750 microm in length were coated with model drugs, protein, and DNA; inserted into nonpreserved human cadaveric sclera; and imaged. Microneedles(More)
AIMS To evaluate the relevance of the ISNT rule with reference to the optic nerve head, in differentiating normal and early glaucoma eyes and neuroretinal rim (NRR) area ratios as measures of glaucomatous optic neuropathy by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retina tomography (HRT) II). METHODS The study included 136 control eyes and 63(More)
PURPOSE To compare ocular biometric parameters with darkroom prone provocative test (DRPPT) in family members of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) patients. METHODS One hundred and forty-nine family members of 46 PACG patients underwent ocular examination included slit lamp biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, fundus examination using +90 D lens, Goldmann(More)
PURPOSE The individual parameters of aqueous humor dynamics may influence each other to maintain intraocular pressure (IOP) homeostasis. Central corneal thickness (CCT) is known to be associated with onset and progression of glaucoma and can potentially influence the individual parameters of aqueous humor dynamics that maintain IOP. This study investigates(More)
BACKGROUND Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) manifests within the first few years of a child's life and is not associated with any other systemic or ocular abnormalities. PCG results in considerable morbidity even in developed countries. Several surgical techniques for treating this condition, and lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) associated with it,(More)
Visual field assessment is important in the evaluation of lesions involving the visual pathways and should be performed at baseline and periodically in the follow-up. Standard automated perimetry has been shown to be adequate in neuro-ophthalmic practise and is now the technique of choice for a majority of practitioners. Goldman kinetic visual fields are(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the daytime vs nighttime differences in intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous humor dynamics, central cornea thickness, and blood pressure among a cohort of healthy volunteers. METHODS Thirty healthy volunteers (mean [SD] age, 57.0 [8.6] years) were enrolled in the study. Individuals underwent 1 daytime visit and 1 nighttime visit(More)