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HKT-type transporters appear to play key roles in Na(+) accumulation and salt sensitivity in plants. In Arabidopsis HKT1;1 has been proposed to influx Na(+) into roots, recirculate Na(+) in the phloem and control root : shoot allocation of Na(+). We tested these hypotheses using (22)Na(+) flux measurements and ion accumulation assays in an hkt1;1 mutant and(More)
Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield globally. The Na+ toxicity of many crop plants is correlated with overaccumulation of Na+ in the shoot. We have previously suggested that the engineering of Na+ exclusion from the shoot could be achieved through an alteration of plasma membrane Na+ transport(More)
Plant salinity tolerance is a polygenic trait with contributions from genetic, developmental, and physiological interactions, in addition to interactions between the plant and its environment. In this study, we show that in salt-tolerant genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), multiple mechanisms are well combined to withstand saline conditions. These(More)
Salinity tolerance can be attributed to three different mechanisms: Na+ exclusion from the shoot, Na+ tissue tolerance and osmotic tolerance. Although several key ion channels and transporters involved in these processes are known, the variation in expression profiles and the effects of these proteins on Na+ transport in different accessions of the same(More)
This work investigates the role of cytosolic Na+ exclusion in roots as a means of salinity tolerance in wheat, and offers in planta methods for the functional assessment of major transporters contributing to this trait. An electrophysiological protocol was developed to quantify the activity of plasma membrane Na+ efflux systems in roots, using the(More)
Soil salinity affects a large proportion of the land worldwide, forcing plants to evolve a number of mechanisms to cope with salt stress. Cytokinin plays a role in the plant response to salt stress, but little is known about the mechanism by which cytokinin controls this process. We used a molecular genetics approach to examine the influence of cytokinin on(More)
Plants employ several strategies to maintain cellular ion homeostasis under salinity stress, including mediating ion fluxes by transmembrane transport proteins and adjusting osmotic pressure by accumulating osmolytes. The HKT (high-affinity potassium transporter) gene family comprises Na(+) and Na(+)/K(+) transporters in diverse plant species, with HKT1;1(More)
Potted grapevines of 140 Ruggeri (Vitis berlandieri × Vitis rupestris), a good Cl(-) excluder, and K 51-40 (Vitis champinii × Vitis riparia 'Gloire'), a poor Cl(-) excluder, and of a family obtained by crossing the two genotypes, were used to examine the inheritance of Cl(-) exclusion. Rooted leaves were then used to further investigate the mechanism for(More)
Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl(-)) in the shoot by regulating their transfer from the root symplast into the xylem-associated apoplast. To identify molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon, we undertook a transcriptional screen of salt stressed Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots.(More)
The Arabidopsis AtHKT1;1 protein was identified as a sodium (Na⁺) transporter by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, direct comparative in vivo electrophysiological analyses of a plant HKT transporter in wild-type and hkt loss-of-function mutants has not yet been reported and it has been recently argued(More)