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Hearing loss is the most common occupational disease in the United States, with noise serving as the presumed causative agent in most instances. This investigation characterizes the exposure conditions that facilitate the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) by carbon monoxide (CO). Auditory function was compared in rats exposed 4 weeks earlier(More)
This review article is designed to serve as an introductory guide in neuroanatomy for toxicologic pathologists evaluating general toxicity studies. The article provides an overview of approximately 50 neuroanatomical subsites and their functional significance across 7 transverse sections of the brain. Also reviewed are 3 sections of the spinal cord, cranial(More)
Objective We assessed the availability of essential medicines for mental healthcare (MH) across levels of the public healthcare system to aid in future systems planning. Design Non-expired MH medications were assessed in 24 public health facilities and 13 district warehouses across Sofala Province, Mozambique, from July to August 2014. Medication categories(More)
Increased brain manganese (Mn) following inhalation can result from direct transport via olfactory neurons and blood delivery. Human health risk assessments for Mn should consider the relative importance of these pathways. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model describing the olfactory transport and blood delivery of Mn in rats(More)
BACKGROUND An emerging literature suggests that environmental chemicals may play a role in the development of childhood obesity and metabolic disorders, especially when exposure occurs early in life. OBJECTIVE Here we assess the association between these health outcomes and exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as part of a broader effort to(More)
Free radical injury has been implicated in cochlear damage resulting from exposure to high-intensity noise and due to carbon monoxide (CO) hypoxia. Although exposure to noise plus CO is common in occupational settings and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is enhanced in the presence of CO, potential mechanisms resulting in auditory impairment have not been(More)
There is growing evidence that agents that produce oxidative stress in the cochlea have significant ototoxic potential by themselves and can potentiate noise-induced hearing loss as well. Acrylonitrile (ACN) metabolism entails conjugation with glutathione, resulting in rapid and pronounced depletion of this important antioxidant in many organs including(More)
Harmonization of diagnostic nomenclature used in the pathology analysis of tissues from rodent toxicity studies will enhance the comparability and consistency of data sets from different laboratories worldwide. The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of four(More)
People with mental illness have long experienced prejudice and discrimination. Researchers have been able to study this phenomenon as stigma and have begun to examine ways of reducing this stigma. Public stigma is the most prominent form observed and studied, as it represents the prejudice and discrimination directed at a group by the larger population.(More)