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Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play an important role in detecting invading pathogens and mounting a robust defense response to restrict infection. In rice, one of the best characterized PRRs is XA21, a leucine rich repeat receptor-like kinase that confers broad-spectrum resistance to multiple strains of the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv.(More)
We have investigated infection and pathogenesis of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in Anticarsia gemmatalis (velvetbean caterpillar) larvae using a lacZ recombinant virus (AcMNPV-hsp70/lacZ) to track the temporal progression of infection in the midgut intestine and haemocoel. A. gemmatalis was highly resistant to fatal(More)
Gram-negative bacteria continuously pinch off portions of their outer membrane, releasing membrane vesicles. These outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are involved in multiple processes including cell-to-cell communication, biofilm formation, stress tolerance, horizontal gene transfer, and virulence. OMVs are also known modulators of the mammalian immune(More)
Surveillance of the extracellular environment by immune receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic survival. The rice receptor kinase XA21, which confers robust resistance to most strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is representative of a large class of cell surface immune receptors in plants and animals. We(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are generated in insects exposed to pathogens for combating infection. Gloverin is a small cationic antibacterial protein whose expression is induced in the hemocytes and fat body cells of Trichoplusia ni larvae exposed to bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of gloverin during baculovirus infection. We found(More)
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