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Before meaningful conclusions can be drawn from clinical measures of cerebral blood perfusion, the precision of the measurement must be determined and set in the context of inter- and intrasubject sources of variability. This work establishes the reproducibility of perfusion measurements using the noninvasive MRI technique of continuous arterial spin(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the relation of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes, and WM lesion load, with clinical outcomes 20 years after first presentation with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS Seventy-three patients were studied a mean of 20 years from first presentation with a clinically isolated(More)
PURPOSE To develop an automated lesion-filling technique (LEAP; LEsion Automated Preprocessing) that would reduce lesion-associated brain tissue segmentation bias (which is known to affect automated brain gray [GM] and white matter [WM] tissue segmentations in people who have multiple sclerosis), and a WM lesion simulation tool with which to test it. (More)
While brain atrophy occurs early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis, exactly how early, which tissues are affected and the rate at which early atrophy occurs are unclear. Regional brain atrophy was investigated in 58 patients recruited within 3 months of onset of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis, who were(More)
Previous MR studies have established that grey matter (GM) atrophy occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) from clinical onset. However, it is uncertain whether early GM atrophy is global or has certain local predilections: using Voxel-Based Morphometry this study aimed to address this question.Twenty-one patients with early RRMS (mean age 36 years, mean disease(More)
BACKGROUND There is little information available on grey and white matter (GM and WM) atrophy in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and on their relationships with clinical and other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. AIM To evaluate disease progression in the early phase of PPMS, focusing on axonal loss as assessed by volumetric MRI(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the reproducibility of SPM99-based whole brain, gray matter, and white matter volume measurements with and without image inhomogeneity correction, subsequently exploring age and gender effects on absolute and fractional (proportional to intra-cranial) volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-seven control subjects (aged 23.2 to 55.2(More)
We have recently reported brain atrophy in the early stages of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), affecting both grey and white matter (GM and WM). However, to date no clinical or radiological predictors of GM and WM atrophy have been identified. The aim was to investigate short-term changes in GM and WM volumes and to assess the predictive(More)
BACKGROUND Pathological abnormalities including demyelination and neuronal loss are reported in the outer cortex in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE We investigated for in vivo evidence of outer cortical abnormalities by measuring the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in MS patients of different subgroups. METHODS Forty-four relapsing-remitting (RR)(More)
Quantitative diffusion analysis of white matter (WM) tracts has been utilised in many diseases for determining damage to, and changes in, WM tracts throughout the brain. However, there are limited studies investigating associations between quantitative measures in WM tracts and anatomically linked grey matter (GM), due to the difficulty in determining GM(More)