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Before meaningful conclusions can be drawn from clinical measures of cerebral blood perfusion, the precision of the measurement must be determined and set in the context of inter- and intrasubject sources of variability. This work establishes the reproducibility of perfusion measurements using the noninvasive MRI technique of continuous arterial spin(More)
Brain atrophy measured by MRI is a potentially useful tool for monitoring disease progression in multiple sclerosis. The location, extent and mechanisms of brain atrophy in early disease are not well documented. Using quantitative MRI, this study investigated whole brain, grey and white matter atrophy in clinically early relapsing-remitting multiple(More)
PURPOSE To develop an automated lesion-filling technique (LEAP; LEsion Automated Preprocessing) that would reduce lesion-associated brain tissue segmentation bias (which is known to affect automated brain gray [GM] and white matter [WM] tissue segmentations in people who have multiple sclerosis), and a WM lesion simulation tool with which to test it. (More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the relation of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes, and WM lesion load, with clinical outcomes 20 years after first presentation with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS Seventy-three patients were studied a mean of 20 years from first presentation with a clinically isolated(More)
While much work has concentrated on focal white matter (WM) lesions in multiple sclerosis, there is growing evidence to suggest that normal-appearing WM (NAWM) and grey matter (GM) are also involved in the disease process. This study investigated multiple sclerosis disease effects on NAWM and cortical GM (CGM) metabolite concentrations, and the(More)
Previous MR studies have established that grey matter (GM) atrophy occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) from clinical onset. However, it is uncertain whether early GM atrophy is global or has certain local predilections: using Voxel-Based Morphometry this study aimed to address this question.Twenty-one patients with early RRMS (mean age 36 years, mean disease(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether brain atrophy and lesion volumes predict subsequent 10 year clinical evolution in multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN From eight MAGNIMS (MAGNetic resonance Imaging in MS) centres, we retrospectively included 261 MS patients with MR imaging at baseline and after 1-2 years, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scoring at(More)
BACKGROUND Abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissues may contribute to disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), where few lesions are seen on conventional imaging. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the mechanisms underlying disease progression in the early phase of PPMS by measuring metabolite concentrations in normal-appearing white matter(More)
While brain atrophy occurs early in the clinical course of multiple sclerosis, exactly how early, which tissues are affected and the rate at which early atrophy occurs are unclear. Regional brain atrophy was investigated in 58 patients recruited within 3 months of onset of a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis, who were(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring perfusion provides a potential indication of metabolic activity in brain tissue. Studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified areas of decreased perfusion in grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM), but the pattern in clinical subgroups is unclear. OBJECTIVES This study investigated perfusion changes in differing MS clinical(More)