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Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterized by progressive beta-cell failure. Apoptosis is probably the main form of beta-cell death in both forms of the disease. It has been suggested that the mechanisms leading to nutrient- and cytokine-induced beta-cell death in type 2 and type 1 diabetes, respectively, share the activation of a final common pathway(More)
Cytokines and free radicals are mediators of beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes. Under in vitro conditions, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) + gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) induce nitric oxide (NO) production and apoptosis in rodent and human pancreatic beta-cells. We have previously shown, by microarray analysis of primary beta-cells, that IL-1beta + IFN-gamma(More)
Apoptosis is likely to be the main form of beta-cell death in immune-mediated diabetes mellitus in rodents and possibly in humans. Clarification of the regulation of beta-cell death could indicate novel sites for therapeutic intervention in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. We review the molecular effectors and signal transduction of(More)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta and interferon-gamma, are putative mediators of immune-induced beta-cell death and, under in vitro conditions, cause beta-cell apoptosis. We have recently shown that interleukin-1 beta + interferon-gamma modifies the expression of(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, contributing to pancreatic beta-cell loss and insulin resistance. Components of the unfolded protein response (UPR) play a dual role in beta-cells, acting as beneficial regulators under physiological conditions or as triggers of beta-cell(More)
Free fatty acids (FFA) cause apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and might contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied here the molecular mechanisms implicated in FFA-induced ER stress initiation and apoptosis in INS-1E cells, FACS-purified primary beta-cells and human islets exposed to(More)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a strong inflammatory component. The latest studies indicate that innate immunity and inflammatory mediators have a much broader role in T1DM than initially assumed. Inflammation might contribute to early induction and amplification of the immune assault against pancreatic beta cells and,(More)
Locally released cytokines contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in type 1 diabetes. In vitro exposure of insulin-producing INS-1E cells to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta + interferon (IFN)-gamma leads to a significant increase in apoptosis. To characterize the genetic networks implicated in beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis and its(More)
Apoptosis is probably the main form of beta-cell death in both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM. In T1DM, cytokines contribute to beta-cell destruction through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Previous studies suggested that in T2DM high glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs) are beta-cell toxic also via NF-kappaB activation. The aims of(More)
Studies in Zucker diabetic fatty rats have led to the concept that chronically elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels can cause apoptosis of triglyceride-laden pancreatic beta-cells as a result of the formation of ceramides, which induce nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cell death. This "lipotoxicity" hypothesis could explain development of type 2 diabetes in(More)