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BACKGROUND Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine(More)
Although interactions between superoxide (O(2)(.-)) and nitric oxide underlie many physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, regulation of this crosstalk at the enzymatic level is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a prototypic superoxide O(2)(.-) -producing enzyme, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1)(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays essential roles in adipogenesis by transcriptionally regulating adipocyte-specific genes through recruitment of coregulators including coactivators and corepressors. However, the precise repertoire of coactivators required for PPARgamma transactivation remains unresolved. In this report, we(More)
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to improve multiple normal endothelial cell functions and inhibit vascular wall cell proliferation. We hypothesized that one such agent, simvastatin, would attenuate chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed (14 days) to(More)
Challenge of the airways of sensitized guinea pigs with aerosolized ovalbumin resulted in an early phase of microvascular protein leakage and a delayed phase of eosinophil accumulation in the airway lumen, as measured using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Immunoreactive eotaxin levels rose in airway tissue and BAL fluid to a peak at 6 h falling to low levels(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased pulmonary expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. Nevertheless, some reports have indicated decreased pulmonary production of NO in the disease. To address this paradox, we determined pulmonary concentrations of the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric(More)
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, simvastatin, has been shown to attenuate chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH). Here, we assess whether simvastatin is capable of inducing regression of established CHPH and explore potential mechanisms of statin effect. Rats (n = 8 in each group) were exposed to chronic hypoxia (10%(More)
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is implicated in cardiac remodeling in heart failure (HF). As xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is 1 of the major sources of ROS, we tested whether XOR inhibition could improve cardiac performance and induce reverse remodeling in a model of established HF, the spontaneously hypertensive/HF (SHHF) rat. We(More)
Arginase, expressed in endothelial cells and upregulated in aging blood vessels, competes with NO synthase (NOS) for l-arginine, thus modulating vasoreactivity and attenuating NO signaling. Moreover, arginase inhibition restores endothelial NOS signaling and l-arginine responsiveness in old rat aorta. The arginase isoform responsible for modulating NOS,(More)
In a mouse chronic hypoxia model of pulmonary hypertension, we discovered a novel hypoxia-inducible gene in lung, FIZZ1/RELMalpha, first through a cDNA array analysis and then confirmed by RT-PCR. Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed that its expression was induced by hypoxia only in lung. The hypoxia-upregulated gene expression was located in the(More)