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The cargo that the molecular motor kinesin moves along microtubules has been elusive. We searched for binding partners of the COOH terminus of kinesin light chain, which contains tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs. Three proteins were found, the c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting proteins (JIPs) JIP-1, JIP-2, and JIP-3, which are scaffolding(More)
We have examined the role of two mesenchymal ligands of epithelial tyrosine kinase receptors in mouse mammary gland morphogenesis. In organ cultures of mammary glands, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, scatter factor) promoted branching of the ductal trees but inhibited the production of secretory proteins. Neuregulin (NRG, neu differentiation factor)(More)
Scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor (SF/HGF) has potent motogenic, mitogenic, and morphogenetic activities on epithelial cells in vitro. The cell surface receptor for this factor was recently identified: it is the product of the c-met protooncogene, a receptor-type tyrosine kinase. We report here the novel and distinct expression patterns of SF/HGF and(More)
Cell survival is determined by a balance among signaling cascades, including those that recruit the Akt and JNK pathways. Here we describe a novel interaction between Akt1 and JNK interacting protein 1 (JIP1), a JNK pathway scaffold. Direct association between Akt1 and JIP1 was observed in primary neurons. Neuronal exposure to an excitotoxic stimulus(More)
Neuregulin (also known as NDF, heregulin, ARIA, GGF or SMDF), induces cell growth and differentiation. Biological effects of neuregulin are mediated by members of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors. Three major neuregulin isoforms are produced from the gene, which differ substantially in sequence and in overall structure. Here we use in situ(More)
In response to changes in electrolyte concentration and pH, erythrocyte ghosts can exhibit some of the characteristic shapes seen in the intact erythrocyte. These shape changes are accompanied by volume changes; both are reversible, not energy dependent, and not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. The volume reduction can also be seen in isolated Triton-free(More)
The present investigation of the cervical region of the vertebral column at eight post-ovulatory weeks is the first such study based on precise reconstructions of staged embryos. At the end of the embryonic period proper, a typical vertebra is a U-shaped piece of cartilage characterized by spina bifida occulta. The notochord ascends through the centra and(More)
The sacral and coccygeal vertebrae at 8 postovulatory weeks (the end of the embryonic period proper) have been studied by means of graphic reconstructions. The cartilaginous sacrum is now a definitive unit composed of five separable vertebrae, each of which consists of a future centrum and bilateral neural processes. The base of each neural process consists(More)
IL-21, a member of the common gamma-chain family of cytokines, has pleiotropic effects on T, B, and NK cells. We found that IL-21 and the prototype common gamma-chain cytokine IL-2 can stimulate proliferation and cytokine secretion by Ag-specific rhesus monkey CD8+ T cells. However, unique among the members of this family of cytokines, we found that IL-21(More)