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Although negative dental experiences are often cited as the major factor in the development of dental anxiety, very few studies have provided data on their prevalence. The studies that are available used limited samples from which it is not possible to generalise, or confined their enquiries to painful experiences only. In this paper data are provided on(More)
The topic of employee motivation plays a central role in the field of management— both practically and theoretically. Managers see motivation as an integral part of the performance equation at all levels, while organizational researchers see it as a fundamental building block in the development of useful theories of effective management practice. Indeed,(More)
Little attention has been given to the issue of the age of onset of dental anxiety, even though it may have a bearing on the origins of this type of fear. This study aimed to identify the age of onset of dental anxiety and to identify differences by age of onset with respect to potential etiological factors, such as negative dental experiences, family(More)
Studies of the prevalence of dental anxiety in general population samples have produced estimates which range from a low of 2.6% to a high of 20.4%. It is not clear whether these reflect real differences among populations or whether they are the result of the use of different measures and different cut-off points. We undertook a large scale mail survey of(More)
In a replication and extension of the study by M. E. Heilman, M. C. Simon, and D. P. Repper (1987), 201 undergraduates participated in a simulation in which they experienced differing selection procedures and outcome feedback. Selection procedures did not have the deleterious effects on women that were found previously. Instead, race interacted with gender(More)
The relationship between dental anxiety and blood/body injury (BI) fears was examined in a sample of 1420 adults. Based on their responses to two mail questionnaires, they were classified into one of four groups: Group 1--neither dentally anxious nor BI fearful; Group 2--BI fearful only; Group 3--dentally anxious only; Group 4--both dentally anxious and BI(More)
This study aimed to use a population-based sample to assess the psychological validity of the Seattle system for diagnosing dentally anxious individuals. This system consists of four diagnostic types in which such individuals are categorized according to the main source of their fear regarding dental treatment. Subjects were 1420 randomly selected adults(More)
Using cross-cultural laboratory and field studies with samples of leaders, employees, and students from the United States and the People's Republic of China, we examined how team-level stimuli, including empowering leadership and relationship conflict, combine to influence individual members' motivational states of psychological empowerment and affective(More)