Debra L. Murray

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Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early(More)
The Hymenoptera--ants, bees and wasps--represent one of the most successful but least understood insect radiations. We present the first comprehensive molecular study spanning the entire order Hymenoptera. It is based on approximately 7 kb of DNA sequence from 4 gene regions (18S, 28S, COI and EF-1α) for 116 species representing all superfamilies and 23(More)
The first comprehensive analysis of higher-level phylogeny of the order Hymenoptera is presented. The analysis includes representatives of all extant superfamilies, scored for 392 morphological characters, and sequence data for four loci (18S, 28S, COI and EF-1a). Including three outgroup taxa, 111 terminals were analyzed. Relationships within symphytans(More)
Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci, notably those belonging to group A, make up a large family of true exotoxins referred to as pyrogenic toxin superantigens. These toxins cause toxic shock-like syndromes and have been implicated in several allergic and autoimmune diseases. Included within this group of proteins are the staphylococcal enterotoxins,(More)
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