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The biological effects of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1 are mediated by binding to C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 2. In the present studies, we used CCR2 knockout (CCR2-/-) mice to examine the role of MCP-1 in acetaminophen-induced macrophage accumulation in the liver, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and hepatotoxicity. We found that hepatic(More)
The formation of reactive oxygen species by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system is thought to be due to autoxidation of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and the nonproductive decay of oxygen-bound cytochrome P450 intermediates. To characterize this process in recombinant microsomal enzymes, we used a highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide assay based on(More)
Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most severe consequences of exposure to paraquat, an herbicide that causes rapid alveolar inflammation and epithelial cell damage. Paraquat is known to induce toxicity in cells by stimulating oxygen utilization via redox cycling and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. However, the enzymatic activity mediating(More)
Acetaminophen is a mild analgesic and antipyretic agent that is safe and effective when taken in therapeutic doses. Ingestion of overdoses, however, may lead to acute liver failure accompanied by centrilobular degeneration and necrosis. Although the toxicity of acetaminophen is generally thought to be caused by direct interaction of its reactive metabolites(More)
The mutagenic potential of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) and some related compounds were studied using the L5178Y mouse (TK+/-) lymphoma assay. The established mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) were highly active in this assay, whereas PVP-I, polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP), potassium iodide (KI), and iodine (I2) were inactive.(More)
Inhaled nitric oxide is a targeted pulmonary vasodilator that improves clinical outcomes for newborn patients with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and may be effective in treating some premature patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome or lung disease of prematurity. Nitric oxide is now recognized as playing an important role in(More)
Macrophages are critical cellular effectors of nonspecific host defense. They are also potent secretory cells releasing an array of mediators including proinflammatory and cytotoxic cytokines and growth factors, bioactive lipids, hydrolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, each of which has been implicated in tissue injury. The(More)
In the skin, wounding initiates a complex array of physiological processes mediated by growth factors and inflammatory mediators which stimulate tissue repair and protect against infection. We report that primary cultures of human keratinocytes and a mouse keratinocyte cell line respond to the inflammatory stimuli gamma-interferon and lipopolysaccharide or(More)
Toxic doses of acetaminophen (AA) cause hepatocellular necrosis. Evidence suggests that activated macrophages contribute to the pathogenic process; however, the factors that activate these cells are unknown. In these studies, we assessed the role of mediators released from AA-injured hepatocytes in macrophage activation. Treatment of macrophages with(More)